Investment in health is a strategically important and often underestimated component of economic development. This study sets out a systematic approach to improving health in poor countries. For emerging countries, substantially improved health outcomes are a prerequisite to breaking out of the poverty cycle. This book on poverty and health, jointly published by the OECD and WHO, sets out the essential components of a broad-scope "pro-poor" health approach for action within the health system and beyond it. It is for development practitioners in the area of health issues.