Power and Society: An Introduction to the Social Sciences / Edition 13

Power and Society: An Introduction to the Social Sciences / Edition 13

by Brigid C. Harrison
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Cengage Learning


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Power and Society: An Introduction to the Social Sciences / Edition 13

A dynamic, interdisciplinary introduction to the social sciences, Power and Society introduces each of the social sciences, and demonstrates how the various disciplines differ in their focus and methods, while maintaining the central integrative theme of power. The interdisciplinary viewpoint illustrates the nature and uses of power in society. Power and Society will stimulate your interest in the social sciences as it explores some of the central challenges facing American society; for example, ideological conflict, racism and sexism, poverty and powerlessness, crime and violence, community problems, and international relations.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781133604419
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 01/15/2013
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 480
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 9.00(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Brigid Callahan Harrison is professor of political science and law at Montclair State University, where she has taught since 1994. In addition to Power and Society, she is the author of AMERICAN DEMOCRACY NOW (Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2015), A MORE PERFECT UNION (McGraw-Hill Publishers, 2011), WOMEN IN AMERICAN POLITICS (Wadsworth, 2003), and various journal articles. A frequent commentator in print and electronic media on U.S. politics, Harrison often provides political analysis to FOX News, local affiliates of ABC, NBC, and CBS, and NPR radio programs. She writes a weekly column on New Jersey politics for The Bergen Record, and her editorials have appeared in THE NEW YORK TIMES, USA TODAY, THE STAR-LEDGER, and THE PRESS OF ATLANTIC CITY. Harrison's research interests include Congress and the Presidency, and American public opinion. She is an expert on the politics of the Millennial Generation. She received her M.A. from Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, and her Ph.D. from Temple University, where she was a national MENSA graduate fellow. She has served as president of the National Women's Caucus for Political Science, section chair of the Northeast Political Science Association, president-elect of the New Jersey Political Science Association, and president of the Midwest Women's Caucus for Political Science. Inducted into the Atlantic County Women's Hall of fame in 2009, she also was the recipient of the "Distinguished Alumna of the Year" from the Richard Stockton College Council of Black Faculty and Staff.

Table of Contents

Preface     xi
The Nature and Study of Power     3
Power, Society, and Social Science     4
The Nature of Power     4
Power and the Social Sciences     8
Masters of Social Thought: Bertrand Russell: Power Is to the Social Sciences     9
Social Sciences and Social Problems     14
About This Chapter     16
For Discussion     16
On the Web: Exploring Power and Society     16
Social Sciences and the Scientific Method     18
Science and the Scientific Method     18
Focus: The Vocabulary of Social Science     19
What Is a "Fact"?     23
The Classic Scientific Research Design     23
Controversies in Social Science: Can Social Science Be Scientific?     24
Gathering Data: Survey Research     26
Focus: Abortion: A Hot-Button Issue     30
Focus: Changing College Student Opinions     33
Case Study: An Experiment in Preventing Underage Drinking     36
About This Chapter     38
For Discussion     39
On the Web: Exploring the Social Sciences     39
Power and Ideology     41
The Power of Ideas     41
ClassicalLiberalism: The Least Government Is the Best Government     42
Modern Liberalism: Government Power to "Do Good"     43
Focus: Selected Direct Quotations from Ideologies     44
Modern Conservatism: Individualism and Traditional Values     45
Focus: How to Tell if You're Liberal or Conservative     47
Masters of Social Thought: Neoconservative Irving Kristol     50
Fascism: The Supremacy of Race and Nation     52
Socialism: Government Ownership, Central Planning     56
Case Study: The Rise and Fall of Communism In Russia     57
Why Communism Collapsed     60
About This Chapter     62
For Discussion     62
On the Web: Exploring Ideologies     53
Power and the Social Sciences     65
Power and Culture     66
The Origins of Power     66
Culture: Ways of Life     67
Masters of Social Thought: Ruth Benedict and Patterns of Culture     69
The Components of Culture     70
The Nature of Culture     72
Masters of Social Thought: Clifford Geertz's Anti Anti-Relativism     75
Controversies in Social Sciences: The World's Missing Girls     76
Authority in the Family     78
Focus: Social Science Looks at Sex in America     79
International Perspective: Women in the Workforce     83
Power and Gender     86
Focus: Marriage American Style     87
International Perspective: Liberia's Iron Lady: President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf     88
Power and Political Systems     90
Focus: Power and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia     92
Power and Society: Some Anthropological Observations     94
About This Chapter     95
For Discussion     95
On the Web: Exploring Anthropology     95
Power and Social Class     97
Power Relations and Social Stratification     97
Stratification in American Society     98
Sociology and the Study of Social Classes     102
Inequality in America     105
International Perspective: Beliefs about Equality and Opportunity     108
Social Mobility: The Ups and Downs     109
Class as a Determinant of Lifestyle     111
Masters of Social Thought: C. Wright Mills and the Power Elite     113
International Perspective: Global Inequalities     116
Social Classes: Conflict And Conciliation     118
Masters of Social Thought: Karl Marx and the Class Struggle      119
Social Class and Political Power     120
About This Chapter     123
For Discussion     124
On the Web: Exploring Sociology     124
Power and Personality     125
Personality and Individual Responses to Power     125
Our Genetic Code     127
Focus: DNA as a Genealogical Tool     128
Focus: DNA: Blueprint to Life     130
Nurture and Human Development     131
Approaches to Psychology And Personality     132
Focus: Inside the Brain     133
Focus: Evolutionary Psychology: The Mating Game     137
Masters of Social Thought: Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalytic Theory     138
Behaviorism and Learning Theory     140
Masters of Social Thought: B. F. Skinner and the Control of Human Behavior     143
International Perspective: The Self in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures     145
Power and the Study of Psychology     149
Treating Mental Illness     149
Case Study: Diagnosing Mental Illness     150
Focus: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Not Just a Soldier's Disease     154
Powerlessness and Mental Health     156
Case Study: Dying for Power     157
About This Chapter     158
For Discussion     158
On the Web: Exploring Psychology     159
Power and the Economic Order     161
Power and Economic Organization     161
The Market System, Hard Boiled and Impersonal     162
Supply, Demand, and the Market Price     165
Measuring America's Wealth     167
Focus: Interest Rates and You     168
Masters of Social Thought: Adam Smith and Laissez-Faire Economics     170
International Perspective: GNP and Standards of Living     173
Government in a Free Market Economy     174
Case Study: Achieving Economic Stability     176
Masters of Social Thought: John M. Keynes and the Mixed Economy     177
Supply-Side Economics     178
Case Study: The Recent Performance of the American Economy     180
Government Money: Where It Comes From and Where It Goes     182
Government Debt, Deficits, and Surpluses     184
International Perspective: A Look at Government Debt     185
The Concentration of Economic Power     186
Focus: The Concentration of Corporate Power     187
The Globalization of Economic Power     190
International Perspective: The Multinationals' Global Economic Power     192
About This Chapter     195
For Discussion     195
On the Web: Exploring Economics     196
Power and Government     198
Politics, Political Science, and Government Power     198
The Meaning of Democracy     199
Masters of Social Thought: John Locke and Constitutionalism     201
Power and the American Constitution     202
Controversies in Social Science: Direct versus Representative Democracy     206
Federalism and the Growth of Government Power     209
Federalism Today     210
Power and the Branches of the Federal Government     212
Focus: Rating the Presidents     213
Focus: Explaining Presidential Approval Ratings     216
Case Study: A Return to the Imperial Presidency     219
Focus: Bush v. Gore in the U.S. Supreme Court     226
The Power of Congress     226
The Power of the Courts     229
Power and Political Behavior in the United States     232
Political Parties in the United States     235
Differences between Democrats and Republicans     236
Focus: Media Power: The Presidential Debates     238
Power and American Government      241
About This Chapter     241
For Discussion     242
On the Web: Exploring Government and Politics     242
Power and History     244
History and Social Science     244
History and the American Experience     244
Controversies in Social Science: Charles Beard and the Economic Interests of the Founders     246
The Rise of Western Elites     248
The Civil War and Elite Division     249
Power in the Post-Civil War Era     253
Power and the Industrial Revolution     257
Masters of Social Thought: Jane Addams and the Settlement House Movement     259
The New Deal and the Emergence of the "Liberal Establishment"     260
Case Study: Vietnam: A Political History     261
About This Chapter     265
For Discussion     265
On the Web: Exploring History     266
The Uses of Power     269
Power, Race, and Gender     270
Racism in American History     270
The Civil Rights Movement     272
Masters of Social Thought: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Power of Protest     274
Continuing Inequalities     276
Hispanic Power     277
Controversies in Social Science: Affirmative Action and the Constitution     278
Immigration to America     283
Native Americans: An Historical Overview     287
Power and Gender     291
Sex Inequality: Culture or Biology?     293
The Long History of Women's Protests     294
Focus: A Declaration of Women's Rights, 1848     296
Why Are There So Few Women in Power?     297
Sexual Discrimination: Sexual Harassment and the Law     298
Focus: Professor Anita Hill's Testimony in the Supreme Court Confirmation Hearing of Clarence Thomas     300
Abortion and the Law     304
Gay and Lesbian Rights     306
About This Chapter     307
For Discussion     307
On the Web: Exploring Power, Race, and Gender     308
Poverty and Powerlessness     309
Poverty as Powerlessness     309
Poverty in the United States     310
Case Study: How Is Poverty Measured?     311
Is There a Culture of Poverty?     313
Focus: Who Are the Poor?     314
Focus: America's Shame: Our Poor Children     316
International Perspective: A Cure for Poverty? The Gates Foundation     318
Government and Social Welfare      319
International Perspective: Income of the Poor in Advanced Democracies     322
Case Study: Senior Power     323
Homelessness in America     325
Controversies in Social Science: Is Welfare Reform Working?     326
About This Chapter     328
For Discussion     328
On the Web: Exploring Poverty and Powerlessness     329
Power, Violence, and Crime     330
Power and Individual Freedom     330
Violence in American History     330
Focus: September 11, 2001, by the Numbers: The Attacks on the World Trade Center     335
The Problem of Crime     336
Focus: It's a Real Crime!     338
The Constitutional Rights of Defendants     340
International Perspective: The Death Penalty     346
Crime and Drugs     352
An Economic Perspective on Crime     353
Focus: Getting High     354
Controversies in Social Science: Should Drugs Be Legalized?     355
A Psychological Perspective on Crime: The Antisocial Personality     356
Controversies in Social Science: Incarceration or Education?     357
Case Study: The Insanity Defense     358
Social and Cultural Perspectives on Crime      360
About This Chapter     362
For Discussion     362
On the Web: Exploring Power, Crime, and Violence     363
Power and the Global Community     365
The Global Community     365
Globalization in Perspective     365
The Global Problem of Poverty     365
Masters of Social Thought: Immanuel Wallerstein     367
Focus: The Least-Developed Countries     368
The Global Problems of Hunger and Malnourishment     359
Focus: Afghanistan     372
Health and Health Care in the Global Community     375
Still a Global Problem: Slavery     377
Global Population Growth     381
The Structure of Urban Life in the Global Community     383
International Perspective: Worldwide Urbanization     384
About This Chapter     388
For Discussion     388
On the Web: Exploring Power and the Global Community     389
Power Among Nations     390
International Politics     390
International Perspective: An American Dream?     391
Bringing Order to International Relations     392
Focus: Know Your Geography     393
A Brief History of the Cold War      396
The Control of Nuclear Arms     400
International Politics in a Post-September 11 World     404
Focus: Al Qaeda     405
Unanticipated Threats     407
Case Study: American Military Power: The Gulf War and the War in Iraq     408
Controversies in Social Science: When Should the United States Use Military Force?     410
About This Chapter     412
For Discussion     412
On the Web: Exploring Power among Nations     412
Notes     414
Index     420

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