Practical Design Power Supplies

Practical Design Power Supplies

by Ron Lenk

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Overview

Practical Design Power Supplies by Ron Lenk

Design power supplies for any application! If you're developing power supplies in the low to medium range - OW to 10kW - here's an expert-level resource that dramatically cuts your desing time and effort. Practical Design of Power Supplies, by Ron Lenk, shows you when to use higher switching frequency converters...why you should questioncertain ultra-low noise requirements...how to select the right flyback and when to use it...how to spec the "ideal" transformer...how to choose the right wire gauge...10 must-know tips for using your network analyzer...how to conduct a detailed "worst-case analysis"...and much, much more. Plus, key concepts and essential data are shown in clear diagrams and tables, along with highlighted notations packed with life-saving real-world guidelines for minimizing radiated noise,selecting topologies, designing manufacturable magnetics, managing heat- the works.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780071343244
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Publication date: 07/31/1998
Pages: 272
Product dimensions: 7.29(w) x 10.32(h) x 0.82(d)

Table of Contents

PREFACE xv(2)
LIST OF TABLES
xvii
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1(16)
Sources
2(5)
Lab Supplies
2(1)
AC Mains
3(1)
Batteries
4(2)
Solar Cells
6(1)
Loads
7(6)
High Speed Requirements
7(1)
Low Noise Requirements
8(2)
Batteries, Again
10(1)
Telephones
11(1)
Fluorescent Tubes
12(1)
Other Converters
13(1)
Safety
13(4)
CHAPTER 2 Practical Selection of Topology
17(20)
Introduction: There Are Hundreds of Topologies!
17(1)
General Considerations
18(4)
Step-Up or Step-Down
18(1)
Practical Limits on Duty Cycle
18(1)
How Many Outputs?
19(1)
Isolation
19(1)
EMI
19(1)
Bipolar versus MOSFET versus?
20(1)
Continuous and Discontinous
20(1)
Synchronous Rectification
21(1)
Voltage Mode versus Current Mode
22(1)
Conclusions
22(1)
The Buck Topology
22(3)
Limitations
23(1)
Gate Drive Difficulties
23(2)
The Flyback
25(3)
Two Kinds
25(1)
Name Confusion with Boost
26(1)
Continuous versus Discontinous
27(1)
Capacitor Limitations
27(1)
Power Limits
27(1)
Practical Limits on Number of Outputs
28(1)
The Buck-Boost
28(1)
Limitations of the Buck-Boost
29(1)
The Forward
29(2)
Minimum Load
30(1)
Leakage Inductance
30(1)
Summary
31(1)
The Push-Pull
31(2)
Voltage-Fed
31(1)
Current-Fed
32(1)
Transformer Utilization
33(1)
Resonant Converters and Soft-Switching Converters
33(2)
The Difference between Resonant and Soft-Switching Converters
33(1)
Why You Should Not Use Resonant Converters
34(1)
Why You Should Use Soft-Switching Converters
34(1)
Compound Converters
35(1)
When to Use Them
36(1)
References
36(1)
CHAPTER 3 Practical Selection of Components
37(22)
Introduction
37(1)
Resistors
38(5)
Values
38(1)
Types of Resistor
38(1)
Tolerance
39(1)
Selecting Rations
39(1)
Maximum Voltage
39(1)
Temperature Coefficient
39(1)
Power Rating
39(1)
Pulse Power
40(1)
Rheostats: A What?
40(2)
Noninductive Wirewound Resistors
42(1)
Shunts
42(1)
Using a Trace as a Resistor
43(1)
Capacitors and their Usage
43(3)
Types of Capacitors
43(1)
Standard Values
44(1)
Tolerance
44(1)
ESR and Power Dissipation
44(1)
Aging
45(1)
dV/dt
45(1)
Putting Caps in Series
46(1)
Schottky Diodes
46(1)
Rectifier Diodes
47(1)
Reverse Recovery
47(1)
Is Faster Better?
48(1)
Transistors: BJTs
48(2)
Pulse Current
48(1)
How Much Beta Can I Get?
49(1)
Don't Forget Collector Leakage Current
49(1)
Emitter-Base Zenering--Is It Bad?
49(1)
Fast Turnoff
49(1)
Transistors: MOSFETs
50(3)
Don't Confuse JFETs and MOSFETs
50(1)
p-Channel and n-Channel
50(1)
Bidirectional Conduction
50(1)
Calculating Losses: Conduction Loss
51(1)
Calculating Losses: Gate Charge Loss
51(1)
Calculating Losses: Switching Loss
51(1)
The Need for Gate Resistors
52(1)
Maximum Gate Voltage
52(1)
Op Amps
53(4)
Offsets: Input Offset Voltage
53(1)
Offsets: Input Offset Current
53(1)
Offsets: Input Bias Current
54(1)
What to Do About Offsets
54(1)
Limits on Large Resistances
54(2)
Gain Bandwidth
56(1)
Phase Shift
56(1)
Slew Rate
56(1)
Comparators
57(1)
Hysteresis
57(1)
Output Saturation Voltage
58(1)
References
58(1)
CHAPTER 4 Practical Guide to Instrumentation
59(12)
Introduction
59(1)
Calculators and Calculations
59(2)
How Many Digits?
59(1)
Do I Care?
60(1)
A Closely Related Problem
60(1)
One More Problem to Avoid
61(1)
DVMs and Other Meters
61(4)
Accuracy versus Precision
61(1)
Averaging
61(1)
How to Filter a DVM
62(1)
Measuring RMS and DVM Bandwidth
62(1)
Measuring Efficiency: Cross-Calibration
63(1)
Where to Put the Probes
63(1)
Measuring Very Low Resistances
64(1)
Using a Shunt for I Is Grater than 10A
64(1)
How to Use a DVM to Measure a MOSFET
65(1)
Electronic Loads
65(1)
Why Is My Stable Converter Oscillating?
65(1)
Minimum Input Voltage
66(1)
Oscilloscopes
66(1)
Aliasing
66(1)
Network Analyzer
67(4)
Step-by-Step Instructions
67(2)
Nyquist Plots
69(2)
CHAPTER 5 Practical Design of Magnetics
71(50)
Fundamentals of Magnetics
71(5)
Introductory Comments
71(1)
Ampere's Law
72(1)
Faraday's Law
72(1)
About Inductance
73(1)
Units Confusion
74(1)
Weird Words: The Three R's
75(1)
The Ideal Transformer
76(2)
What About a Flyback "Transformer"?
77(1)
Real Transformers
78(5)
Core Materials
80(1)
Saturation
80(2)
Other Core Limitations
82(1)
Optimum Design
83(1)
Practical Design of a DC Inductor
83(12)
Core Selection
84(1)
First Try
84(4)
Second Try
88(1)
Selecting the Wire
89(1)
Calculating the Resistance
90(2)
Power Loss
92(2)
Temperature Dependence
94(1)
Conclusion
95(1)
Practical Design of a Flyback Transformer
95(15)
Equations Governing the Flyback
95(2)
Selecting a Core Material Type
97(1)
Core Selection
98(1)
Selecting Core Material
98(1)
Selecting the Gap
98(6)
Core Loss
104(1)
How Did He Read That Little Graph?
104(2)
Can I Get Lower Core Losses by Lowering the Switching Frequency?
106(1)
Winding Losses
107(1)
Do I Need to Worry About Skin Effect?
108(1)
Copper Loss and Total Transformer Loss
109(1)
Flux Density: Two Formulas?
110(1)
Practical Design of a Forward Transformer
110(3)
Practical Design of a Current Transformer
113(2)
Tips for Designing Manufacturable Magnetics
115(3)
Wire Gauge
115(1)
Wire Gauge Ratio
116(1)
Toroid Winding Limits
116(1)
Tape versus Wire Insulation
116(1)
Layering
117(1)
Number of Windings
117(1)
Potting
117(1)
Specs
118(1)
Concluding Comments
118(1)
References
119(2)
CHAPTER 6 Practical Feedback Design
121(44)
Introduction
121(1)
Refresher
121(5)
Logarithms and dB
121(1)
Complex Numbers
122(1)
Complex Functions
123(1)
What Is a Transform?
124(1)
Two Transforms
124(1)
What's the Difference?
125(1)
Transform of C and L
125(1)
Transfer Functions
126(2)
What Is a Transfer Function and Who Cares?
126(1)
Composition Law for Transfer Functions
126(2)
There's No Such Thing as a (Useful) Transform of a Nonlinear System!
128(1)
Basic Control Theory
128(7)
Bode Plots
129(1)
Requirement for Stability
130(2)
How Much Phase Margin Is Enough?
132(1)
Gain Margin?
133(1)
About Conditional Stability
134(1)
Small- versus Large-Signal Stability
134(1)
How to Stabilize a Voltage Mode Buck Converter
135(14)
How to Measure Open Loop Responses
136(2)
Venable's K-Factor Paper
138(4)
Practical Considerations
142(1)
Other Comments
142(1)
How to Measure Closed Loop Response
143(1)
How to Measure It: Transformer Method
144(1)
How to Measure It: The Mixer Method
144(1)
Converter Closed Loop
145(1)
How NOT to Measure a Loop
146(1)
A Better Method of Measuring the Open Loop
147(2)
What It the Noninverting Pin of the Error Amp Isn't Available?
149(1)
Current Mode Control
149(4)
Theory
149(1)
A Limitation of Current Mode Control
150(1)
Slope Compensation
150(2)
How to Compensate a Current Mode Controller
152(1)
Can I Measure the Current Loop?
152(1)
Average Current Mode Control
152(1)
Non-Minimum-Phase Systems
153(2)
Nyquist Plots
154(1)
Some Concepts of System Stability
155(6)
Input and Output Impedance
155(3)
Converter Output Impedance
158(1)
Two Stable Converters Can Make an Unstable System!
159(2)
Example of an Unstable System
161(1)
Some Thoughts on the Role of Simulations
161(2)
References
163(2)
CHAPTER 7 Practical Design of Control and Monitoring Circuitry
165(14)
Control Circuitry
165(7)
Start-Up
165(2)
Soft Start
167(1)
Sequencing
168(1)
Feedback
168(2)
Current Limiting
170(1)
Switching Frequency
171(1)
Synchronization
171(1)
Monitoring Circuitry
172(7)
How to Monitor Voltage
172(1)
Voltage References
173(1)
How to Monitor a Negative Supply Without a Negative Rail
173(1)
Why You Should Always Use Hysteresis on Comparators
174(1)
Resistors and Shunts
175(1)
Differential Amplifiers
175(2)
Compensating Shunt Inductance
177(1)
Fail Should Be Low
178(1)
Driving That Red LED
178(1)
CHAPTER 8 Practical Efficiency and Thermal Management
179(20)
Efficiency
179(11)
Definition
179(1)
Why Is Efficiency Important?
179(1)
Modules
180(1)
90% Is Doing Great!
180(1)
Example Calculation 1
181(7)
Example Calculation 2
188(1)
Improving Efficiency
189(1)
Thermal Management
190(7)
Component Life versus Temperature
190(1)
Modules
191(1)
MIL-HDBK-217
192(1)
MIL-HDBK-217: Example
192(2)
MIL-HDBK-217: Discussion
194(1)
Temperature Calculation
195(1)
Heat Sinks, etc.
196(1)
FEA
197(1)
References
197(2)
CHAPTER 9 Practical EMI Control
199(26)
An Overview
199(4)
Radiated and Conducted
200(1)
What to Do About Radiated Noise
200(1)
What Kind of Box Material?
201(1)
Common Mode versus Normal Mode
201(1)
Return versus Ground
202(1)
Military versus Commercial Measurements
203(1)
How Can I Separate CM from NM?
203(1)
Where Does the Noise Come From?
204(3)
Switching Waveforms
205(1)
Capacitive Coupling
205(2)
Concepts of Layout
207(5)
Signal Ground versus Power Ground
207(2)
Grounding a High Current Driver; Ground Islands
209(1)
What If the Device Has a Signal Input But No Signal Ground?
210(1)
Where to Put the Current Transformer
210(1)
Feedback Lines
211(1)
Further Layout Tips
212(1)
Low Frequency Filtering
212(5)
The Basics
212(1)
Normal Mode Filters
213(1)
Commercial versus Military
213(1)
Selecting the Values
214(1)
Common Mode Filters
214(1)
Selecting the Values
215(1)
Caps and Inductors and Their Limits
216(1)
MOVs Have Capacitance
216(1)
Two for the Price of One
216(1)
You Can't Get 100dB Attenuation!
217(1)
High Frequency Filtering
217(1)
Where Should I Use Beads?
217(1)
Feedthroughts
218(1)
Some Other Topics
218(1)
Noise Estimation
218(1)
Optimal Filtering
219(1)
Optimal Military EMI-Filter Design
219(4)
Converter Stability versus EMI Filtering
222(1)
References
223(2)
CHAPTER 10 Practical Worst-Case Analysis
225(13)
Introduction
225(3)
The Purpose of Worst-Case Analysis
225(1)
How Do You Do WCA?
225(1)
The Purpose of Stress Analysis
226(1)
RMS versus Worst Case
227(1)
Mathematics versus Simulation
227(1)
Monte Carlo? Sensitivity Analysis?
228(1)
An Exhausting Example
228(10)
The Circuit
229(1)
Properties to be Analyzed
229(1)
Table Evaluation Techniques
230(1)
Worst-Case Analysis: Comparator Trip Levels
233(1)
Worst-Case Analysis: The BJT Is Normally Off
234(1)
Worst-Case Analysis: How Long Until the PWM Is Turned Off?
235(1)
Stress Analysis
236(2)
Conclusions
238(1)
Some Concluding Thoughts 238(1)
APPENDIX 1 List of Acronyms Used in the Book and Some Symbols 239(2)
APPENDIX 2 Data Sheets for Worst-Case Analysis 241(18)
INDEX 259(8)
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 267

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