ISBN-10:
0130420387
ISBN-13:
9780130420381
Pub. Date:
07/15/2001
Publisher:
Pearson Education
Prentice Hall Nurse's Drug Guide 2002 / Edition 1

Prentice Hall Nurse's Drug Guide 2002 / Edition 1

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780130420381
Publisher: Pearson Education
Publication date: 07/15/2001
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 1568
Product dimensions: 4.61(w) x 7.52(h) x 3.15(d)

Table of Contents

Preface.
Classification Scheme and Prototype Drugs.
Alphabetical List of Generic Drugs.
Appendix A: Ocular Medications, Low-Molecular Weight Heparins, and Oral and Nasal Corticosteriods in Tabular Form.
Appendix B: U.S. Schedules of Controlled Substances.
Appendix C: FDA Pregnancy Categories.
Appendix D: Oral Dosage Forms That Should Not Be Crushed.
Appendix E: Prescription Combination Drugs.
Appendix F: Glossary of Key Terms, Clinical Conditions, and Associated Signs and Symptoms.
Appendix G: Abbreviations.
Bibliography.
Index.
IV Drug Y-Site Compatibility Chart.

Preface

Prentice Hall Nurse's Drug Guide 2002 is a current and reliable reference designed to provide comprehensive information needed to make appropriate decisions regarding drug administration. The new edition of this drug guide includes 77 monographs for new drugs recently approved by the FDA, and several drugs removed from the market have been eliminated. The new drugs are also included on the new CDROM packaged inside the front cover of this drug guide. On page xiii, the user will find a current listing of drug classifications and their associated drug prototypes with page references to those drug entries. This list serves as a valuable tool especially to students learning pharmacology and familiarizing themselves with drug families and prototypes.

Each drug monograph provides the necessary information for safe and effective drug administration. The user should read all the information provided. Occasionally, the user will be referred to Appendix F, Glossary of Key Terms, Clinical Conditions, and Associated Signs and Symptoms. This unique glossary provides valuable information regarding common assessment findings related to therapeutic effectiveness or ineffectiveness of specific drugs.

The authors recognize that the decision-making process related to drug administration is a cyclical one. For example, assessments are made both prior to and after drug administration. Thus, nursing diagnoses and interventions may change as a result of an achieved therapeutic effect, therapeutic failure, manifestation of an adverse effect, or demonstration of a learning need. The authors believe that the users of this drug reference will find that the clear andlogical design of the drug monographs facilitates decision-making and supports the nursing process.

While some advanced practice nurses and other health professionals now have prescriptive privileges, the term physician is used throughout this book to designate the prescriber of medications.

HOW TO USE THE PRENTICE NALL NURSE'S DRUG GUIDE 2002

In this drug guide, all drugs are listed alphabetically according to their generic names. However, each drug is indexed by both its generic and trade names in the back of the guide to make it easier for the user to locate individual drug monographs. Trade names followed by a maple leaf indicate that brand of the drug is available only in Canada. If a drug is not listed in the alphabetical section, it may be a combination drug, which is a drug made up of more than one generic component. These combination drugs are listed under their trade names in the index and in Appendix E, Prescription Combination Drugs. The appendix identifies the generic components and the amount of each generic drug contained in the combination.

Classifications and Prototype Drugs

The classifications used in this book are based upon the classification scheme used by the American Hospital Formulary Service prototype drugs—and discuss them in more detail than the other drugs in that class. Throughout the generic monographs of this book, this book highlights prototype drug monographs in pink-tinted boxes, e.g., Acetaminophen. The user can refer to the prototype drug to obtain in-depth information on those drugs in the class that are not extensively discussed in their monographs. When a drug belongs to a classification that has a designated prototype drug, that prototype is identified directly below the classification. The table on pages xiii-xviii outlines the classification scheme and lists the drug prototype considered to be representative for each class. Finally, all prototype drugs are highlighted in bold type in the index for quick identification.

Pregnancy Category

Drugs may be described as category A, B, C, D, or X according to risk-benefit ratio for the mother and the fetus, with A being the lowest and X the highest risk. If the FDA pregnancy category is known, it will be indicated after the classifications and prototypes in each monograph. Refer to Appendix C, FDA Pregnancy Categories, for a more complete description of each category.

Controlled Substances

In the United States, controlled substances, such as narcotics, are classified as belonging to one of five schedules (I to V) according to abuse potential. Schedule I has the highest, and Schedule V has the lowest potential for abuse. Refer to Appendix B, U.S. Schedules of Controlled Substances, for a more complete description of each schedule.

Actions/Pharmacodynamics

This entry in each monograph describes the mechanism by which the specific drug produces physiologic and biochemical changes at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels.

Uses

The therapeutic applications of each drug are described in terms of approved, or labeled, uses and unlabeled uses. An unlabeled use is literally one that does not appear on the drug label or in the manufacturer's literature on the use of the drug. The unlabeled use is, nevertheless, an accepted use for the drug supported by the medical literature.

Route and Dosages

Route of administration is specified as SC, IM, IV, PO, PR, nasal, ophthalmic, vaginal, topical, aural, intradermal, or intrathecal. Dosages are listed according to indication, or use. One of the hallmarks of this drug guide is the comprehensive dosage information it provides. The guide includes adult, geriatric, and pediatric dosages, as well as dosages for neonates and infants. This section also indicates Creatinine Clearance and Adjustments for Renal Failure or Hepatic Failure whenever applicable. In all monographs, the routes and dosages are highlighted in a gray box to facilitate quick reference.

Pharmacokinetics

This section lists information about onset, peak, and duration of the drug action. It also identifies the mechanisms of absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and half-life when known.

Contraindications & Precautions

Many drugs are contraindicated and therefore should not be used in specific conditions, during pregnancy, or with particular drugs or foods. In other cases, the drug should be used with great caution because of a greater than average risk of untoward effects.

Adverse/Side Effects

Virtually all drugs have adverse or side effects that may be bothersome to some individuals but not to others. In each monograph, adverse/side effects are listed by body system or organs. The most common adverse effects appear in italic type, while those that are life threatening are underlined. Users of the drug guide will find a key at the bottom of every page as a quick reminder.

Diagnostic Test Interferences

This section describes the effect of the drug on various diagnostic tests and alerts the nurse to possible misinterpretations of test results when applicable.

Drug Interactions

Whenever appropriate, this section will list individual drugs, drug classes, and foods that interact with the drug discussed in the monograph. Drugs may interact to inhibit or enhance one another. Thus, drug interactions may improve the therapeutic response, lead to therapeutic failure, or produce specific untoward reactions. Only drugs that have been shown to cause clinically significant interactions with the drug discussed in the monograph are listed in this section. Note that generic drugs appear in bold type, and drug classes appear in SMALL CAPS.

Incompatibilities

This section lists solutions and drug additives that are physically incompatible with the drug discussed in the monograph. Therefore, these solutions and drug additives should not be mixed in solution with the drug. The table inside the back cover of this drug guide contains information related to the compatibility of drugs that are administered by intravenous Y-Site. Additional drugs that should not be administered together are listed in the monographs when they are applicable.

Nursing Implications

The Nursing Implications section of each drug monograph is formatted in an easy-to-use manner so that all the pertinent information that nurses need is listed under three headings: Administration, Assessment & Drug Effects, and Patient & Family Education. Under these headings, the user can quickly and easily identify needed information and incorporate it into the appropriate steps of the nursing process. Before administering a drug, the nurse should read all, three sections to determine (1) the appropriate administration technique, (2) the assessments that should be made before and after administration of the drug and indicators of drug effectiveness, and (3) essential patient or family education related to the drug.

Therapeutic Effectiveness

Therapeutic effectiveness of the drug can be determined by monitoring improvement in the condition for which the drug is prescribed, and by using the Assessment & Drug Effects section of the Nursing Implications. Drugs have multiple uses or indications. Therefore, it is important to know why a drug is being prescribed for a specific client. Therapeutic effectiveness of the drug may be determined by monitoring for improvement in the condition for which the drug is prescribed.

Intravenous Drugs

In the Administration section of each monograph, complete and comprehensive information for intravenous drugs includes directions for reconstitution, dilution, methods of administration, and rate of injection or infusion. Thus, this guide eliminates the need for additional resources for intravenous drug administration. Y-Site compatibility is crucial information for intravenous administration, and is listed in individual drug monographs. A chart of Y-Site compatibility for intravenous drugs is located inside the back cover of this drug guide.

Appendixes

This edition of the drug guide includes several helpful tables and charts in the appendixes, including Appendix A, Ocular Medications, Lowmolecular Weight Heparins, and Topical and Nasal Corticosteroids; Appendix B, U.S. Schedules of Controlled Substances; Appendix C, FDA Pregnancy Categories; Appendix D, Oral Dosage Forms That Should Not Be Crushed; Appendix E: Prescription Combination Drugs; Appendix F. Glossary of Key Terms, Clinical Conditions, and Associated Signs and Symptoms; and Appendix G. Abbreviations.

Index

The index in the Prentice Hall Nurse's Drug Guide 2002 is perhaps the most often used section in the entire book. All generic, trade, and combination drugs are listed in this index. Whenever a trade name is listed, the generic drug monograph is listed in parentheses. Additionally, classifications are listed and identified in small caps, while all prototype drugs are highlighted in bold type.

CD-ROM

The CD-ROM in the front of Prentice Hall Nurse's Drug Guide 2002 runs on all Windows-based computers. It is designed to assist nurses in providing drug information and nursing implications for patients in hospitals, clinics, and all community settings. The CD-ROM contains monographs for the most commonly prescribed and dispensed drugs, prototype drugs, and all new drugs approved by the FDA. Students and nurses may print these monographs for use in patient teaching or for quick reference.

Companion Website – /drugguides

The companion website for the Prentice Hall Nurse's Drug Guide 2002 is a free online resource that offers additional information and is updated periodically. Go to to access drug updates, links to drug-related sites, drug-related tools, medication administration techniques, drug classifications, principles of pharmacology, common herbal remedies, and more. You can also send the authors your feedback about the drug guide through this website.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to acknowledge Joanne Bullard, RN, MN, at Our Lady of Holy Cross College, and Debora Panepinto for their assistance in the preparation of this book. Most of all, we wish to express our appreciation to our past and present students who have provided the inspiration for this work. It is for these individuals and all who strive for excellence in patient care that this work was undertaken.

Billie Ann Wilson, A.P.R.N., Ph.D.
Margaret T. Shannon, A.P.R.N., Ph.D.
Carolyn L. Stang, Pharm.D.

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