The survival of primates in their natural habitats is of growing concern to primatologists, ecologists and conservationists. In this volume, research on feeding behaviour, nutrition and digestive physiology from captive and wild primates is presented. Correlates of the habitat and social organisation are discussed, and then integrated with the pressing problem of how to conserve primates. Broad issues of confrontation between human and non-human primate populations are considered in the light of conflicting priorities for land-use and development. The increased knowledge of what primates require for their survival is applied to problems of captive propagation as a means of reducing dependence on exploiting wild populations. The papers presented in this volume will stimulate discussion between ecologists, conservationists and those concerned with land-use management to establish realistic policies for primate conservation.