Aviation automation has provided great social and technological benefits, but these benefits have not come without cost. In recent years, new problems in aircraft have emerged due to failures in the human-machine relationship. These incidents and accidents have motivated this inquiry into aviation automation. Similar problems in the air traffic management system are predicted as it becomes more fully automated. In particular, incidents and accidents have occurred which suggest that the principle problems with today's aviation automation are associated with its complexity, coupling, autonomy, and opacity. These problems are not unique to aviation; they exist in other highly dynamic domains as well. The author suggests that a different approach to automation -- called "human-centered automation" -- offers potential benefits for system performance by enabling a more cooperative human-machine relationship in the control and management of aircraft and air traffic.
Table of Contents
Contents: Preface. Part I: Aviation Automation: Past, Present, and Future. Statement of the Problem. The Context and Environments of Aviation. A Concept of Human-Centered Automation. Part II: The Evolution and Course of Aviation Automation. Humans and the Evolution of Industrial Automation. The Evolution of Aircraft Automation. Aircraft Automation in the Future. Air Traffic Control and Management Automation. Future Air Traffic Management Automation. Part III: The Roles of Human Operators in the Aviation System. Benefits and Costs of Aviation Automation. Human and Machine Roles: Responsibility and Authority. Integration and Coupling in the Aviation System. Part IV: Issues for Future Aviation Automation. Advanced and Novel Automation Concepts for the Future System. Requirements for Aviation Automation. Requirements for Certification of Aviation Automation. Automated Systems in Other Domains. Comments and Conclusions. Appendices: Aviation Accidents and Incidents. Wiener and Curry Guidelines for Aircraft Automation (1980).