Principles of Plasma Diagnostics

Principles of Plasma Diagnostics

by I. H. Hutchinson


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780521326223
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Publication date: 09/25/1987
Pages: 384
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 8.98(h) x 0.91(d)

Table of Contents

Preface to the first editionxiii
Preface to the second editionxvi
1Plasma diagnostics1
1.2Plasma properties2
1.2.1Moments of the distribution function3
1.2.2Multiple species5
1.3Categories of diagnostics6
Further reading9
2Magnetic diagnostics11
2.1Magnetic field measurements11
2.1.1The magnetic coil11
2.1.2Hall effect and Faraday effect measurements13
2.1.3Rogowski coils15
2.1.4Ohmic power and conductivity17
2.2Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium20
2.2.1Diamagnetism (m = 0 term)22
2.2.2Position and asymmetry measurements (m = 1)24
2.2.3Strongly shaped plasmas30
2.3Internal magnetic probe measurements37
2.3.1Field measurements37
2.3.2Current density40
2.3.3Electric field41
2.3.5Two - and three-dimensional measurements44
2.4.1External measurements46
2.4.2Internal fluctuation measurements51
Further reading52
3Plasma particle flux55
3.1.1Particle flux56
3.1.2Debye shielding57
3.1.3Collisional effects58
3.2Probes in collisionless plasmas without magnetic fields60
3.2.1Sheath analysis60
3.2.2Sheath thickness65
3.2.3Exact solutions67
3.2.4Orbit-limited collection68
3.2.5Interpretation of the characteristic70
3.3The effects of a magnetic field72
3.3.1General effects72
3.3.2Quasicollisionless ion collection in a strong magnetic field74
3.3.3Collisions in a magnetic field78
3.3.4Mach probes for plasma velocity measurements82
3.3.5Oblique collection and perpendicular velocity measurements86
3.4.1Some practical considerations89
3.4.2More sophisticated analyzers94
Further reading99
4Refractive-index measurements104
4.1Electromagnetic waves in plasma104
4.1.1Waves in uniform media104
4.1.2Plasma conductivity107
4.1.3Nonuniform media: The WKBJ approximation and full-wave treatments110
4.2Measurement of electron density112
4.2.2Determining the phase shift116
4.2.3Modulation and detection methods120
4.2.4Coherence, diffraction and refraction122
4.2.5Choice of frequency, vibration126
4.2.6Interferometric imaging127
4.2.7Schlieren and shadowgraph imaging129
4.2.8Phase contrast interferometry132
4.2.9Scattering from refractive-index perturbations133
4.3Magnetic field measurement133
4.3.1Effect of a magnetic field133
4.3.2Faraday rotation134
4.3.3Propagation close to perpendicular137
4.3.4Measurement of the polarization140
4.4Abel inversion141
4.5.1Calculation of the phase delay146
4.5.2Implementation of reflectometry148
4.5.3Relative merits of reflectometry and interferometry151
Further reading151
5Electromagnetic emission by free electrons155
5.1Radiation from an accelerated charge155
5.1.1The radiation fields155
5.1.2Frequency spectrum in the far field157
5.2Cyclotron radiation158
5.2.1Radiation by a single electron158
5.2.2Plasma emissivity162
5.2.3Nonrelativistic plasma163
5.2.4Radiation transport, absorption, and emission166
5.2.5Wave polarization and finite density effects169
5.2.6Spatially varying magnetic field174
5.2.7Diagnostic applications in thermal plasmas175
5.2.8Nonthermal plasmas179
5.2.9Cerenkov emission183
5.3Radiation from electron--ion encounters186
5.3.1Classical bremsstrahlung186
5.3.2Quantum-mechanical bremsstrahlung192
5.3.3Integration over velocities195
5.3.4Recombination radiation contribution197
5.3.5Temperature measurement201
5.3.6Multiple species: Z[subscript eff] measurement203
5.3.7Absorption: blackbody level bremsstrahlung204
5.3.8X-ray imaging206
5.3.9Nonthermal emission210
Further reading214
6Electromagnetic radiation from bound electrons217
6.1Radiative transitions: the Einstein coefficients218
6.2Types of equilibria221
6.2.1Thermal equilibrium221
6.2.2Saha--Boltzmann population distribution222
6.2.3Nonthermal populations223
6.2.4Coronal equilibrium225
6.2.5Time-dependent situations227
6.3Rate coefficients for collisional processes229
6.3.1Radiative recombination230
6.3.2The classical impact approximation232
6.3.3The dipole approximation234
6.3.4Ionization and excitation rates237
6.3.5Dielectronic recombination241
6.3.6Example: carbon v243
6.3.7Charge-exchange recombination245
6.4Line broadening245
6.4.1Natural line broadening246
6.4.2Doppler broadening247
6.4.3Pressure broadening247
6.4.4Combinations of broadening effects251
6.4.5Reabsorption: optically thick lines252
6.5.1Line intensities253
6.5.2Doppler broadening257
6.5.3Ion flow velocity259
6.5.4Stark widths261
6.6Active diagnostics263
6.6.1Resonant fluorescence263
6.6.2Zeeman splitting: magnetic field measurements266
Further reading267
7Scattering of electromagnetic radiation273
7.1Relativistic electron motion in electromagnetic fields274
7.2Incoherent Thomson scattering276
7.2.1Nonrelativistic scattering: the dipole approximation276
7.2.2Conditions for incoherent scattering277
7.2.3Incoherent Thomson scattering (B = 0)280
7.2.4Experimental considerations285
7.3Coherent scattering293
7.3.1The scattered field and power293
7.3.2Scattering form factor for a uniform unmagnetized plasma296
7.3.3Problems of diagnostics using the ion feature303
7.3.4Scattering from macroscopic density fluctuations304
7.4Scattering when a magnetic field is present308
7.4.1Incoherent scattering from magnetized electrons309
7.4.2Presence of the harmonic structure311
7.4.3Magnetic field measurement314
7.4.4Coherent scattering in a magnetic field315
Further reading320
8Neutral atom diagnostics322
8.1Neutral particle analysis322
8.1.1Collision processes322
8.1.2Neutral transport325
8.1.3The fast neutral spectrum328
8.1.4Dense plasma cases332
8.1.5Nonthermal plasmas333
8.1.6Neutral density measurement334
8.2Active probing with neutral particles336
8.2.1Neutral-beam attenuation337
8.2.2Active charge exchange340
8.2.3Doping species, lithium beams341
8.3Charge-exchange spectroscopy344
8.3.1Charge-exchange cross sections345
8.3.2Diagnostic applications of charge-exchange spectroscopy351
8.4Emission from beam atoms354
8.4.1Beam emission spectroscopy355
8.4.2Motional Stark effect358
8.5Other neutral particle diagnostics363
8.5.1Rutherford scattering363
8.5.2Pellet injection364
Further reading367
9Fast ions and fusion products369
9.1Neutron diagnostics369
9.1.1Reactions and cross sections369
9.1.2Complicating factors372
9.1.3Neutron spectrum374
9.1.4Collimated neutron measurements379
9.2Charged particle diagnostics380
9.2.1Charged reaction products380
9.2.2Orbits of energetic charged particles383
9.2.3Lost charged particle orbit diagnosis387
9.2.4Ion probing beams388
Further reading391
Appendix 1Fourier analysis395
Appendix 2Errors, fluctuations, and statistics402
Appendix 3Survey of radiation technology407
Appendix 4Definitions and identities of fundamental parameters414
Appendix 5Atomic rates for beam diagnostics415

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