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Cengage Learning
Principles of Radiographic Imaging: An Art and a Science / Edition 4

Principles of Radiographic Imaging: An Art and a Science / Edition 4

by Richard R. Carlton


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2901401871948
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 12/16/2005
Edition description: Revised
Pages: 768
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

Richard Carlton is an Associate Professor and former Director of Radiologic and Imaging Sciences at Grand Valley State University in Grand Rapids, Michigan. Previously, he taught Radiography at Arkansas State University, City College of San Francisco and Lima Technical College, and worked as a Clinical Coordinator at Wilbur Wright Community College. A Charter Fellow and past president of A.E.I.R.S., Mr. Carlton gives presentations around the world and founded Lambda Nu, the national honor society for radiologic and imaging sciences. He has written 36 books, started two professional journals and served as a J.R.C.E.R.T. site visitor for forty years. Mr. Carlton earned an M.S. from National Louis University, a B.S. from The Chicago Medical School and an A.A.S. from Illinois Central College. He is A.R.R.T. certified in C.V. and radiography and continues to train residents at West Michigan Regional Laboratory in Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Arlene Adler served four decades as a Professor in the Radiologic Sciences Programs at Indiana University Northwest. Now Professor Emerita, Ms. Adler authored several articles and textbooks on the radiologic sciences during her career. A member of the American Society of Radiologic Technologists and Fellow of the Association of Educators in Radiologic Sciences (A.E.I.R.S.), she earned her B.S. in Radiologic Sciences from the University of Health Sciences/Chicago Medical School and an M.S. in Education from the University of Illinois.

Vesna Balac is Clinical Assistant Professor and Director of the Radiologic Sciences Programs at Indiana University Northwest. Currently a doctoral candidate in Instructional Systems Technology at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana, she is a member of the American Society of Radiologic Technologists, the Association of Educators in Radiologic Sciences (A.E.I.R.S.) and Indiana Society of Radiologic Technologists. Ms. Balac earned her B.S. in Radiologic Sciences from Indiana University Northwest and an M.S. in Adult Education from Indiana University, Bloomington.

Table of Contents

CONTENTS, LIST OF TABLES, FOREWARN, PREFACE, ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, UNIT I: CREATING THE BEAM: CHAPTER 1: BASIC MATHEMATICS, (Mary Ann Hovis), Arithmetic, Algebra, Units of Measurement, CHAPTER 2: RADIATION CONCEPTS, Matter and Energy, Atomic Theory, Types of Energy, Electromagnetic Spectrum, The Discovery of X-Rays, X-Ray Properties, CHAPTER 3: ELECTRICITY, Electrostatics, Electrodynamics, Series and parallel Circuits, CHAPTER 4: ELECTROMAGNETISM, Magnetism, Electromagnetism, Controlling Electrical Current, Rectification, CHAPTER 5: X-RAY EQUIPMENT, Types of X-Ray Equipment, Power for X-Ray Generation, A Basic X-Ray Circuit, Generators, Automatic Exposure Control, CHAPTER 6: THE X-RAY TUBE, The Cathode Assembly, The Anode Assembly, The Glass Envelope, Protective Housing, Off-Focus Radiation, Rating Charts and Cooling Curves, Recommendations for Extending Tube Life, CHAPTER 7: X-RAY PRODUCTION, Conditions, Target Interactions, Emission Spectrum, UNIT II: PROTECTING PATIENTS AND PERSONNEL: CHAPTER 8: RADIATION PROTECTION CONCEPTS AND EQUIPMENT, The Basics of Radiation Protection Principles and Practice, Quantities and Units Relevant to Radiation Protection, Detection and Measurement of Ionizing Radiation, CHAPTER 9: RADIATION PROTECTION PROCEDURES FOR PATIENTS AND PERSONNEL, Advisory Groups and Regulatory Agencies, Limiting Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, Protection of Personnel, Protection of Patient, Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy, CHAPTER 10: FILTRATION, Measurement, Types of Filtration, Effect on Output, CHAPTER 11: THE PRIME FACTORS, The Prime Factors, Milliamperage-Second (mAs), Kilovoltage (kVp), Distance, CHAPTER12: X-RAY INTERACTIONS, X-Ray Interaction with Matter, Photoelectric Absorption, Coherent Scattering, Compton Scattering, Pair Production, Photo disintegration, Effect on Technical Factor Selection, CHAPTER 13: MINIMIZING PATIENT DOSE, Estimating Approximate Entrance Skin Exposure, Typical Entrance Skin Exposure, Reducing Patient Exposure with Communication, Reducing Patient Exposure with Positioning, Reducing Patient Exposure with Technical Factors, Discussing Radiation Risk Versus Benefit with Patients. UNIT III: CREATING THE IMAGE: CHAPTER 14: VISION AND PERCEPTION, Image Perception, Controlling the Image in Space, Radiography as an Art Form, CHAPTER 15: BEAM RESTRICTION, Controlling Scatter, Beam Restrictors, Ancillary Devices, CHAPTER 16: THE PATIENT AS A BEAM EMITTER, Attenuation, The Human Body as an Attenuator, The Patient's Relationship to Image Quality. CHAPTER 17: THE PATHOLOGY PROBLEM, Pathology and Radiation Absorption, Increased Attenuation (Additive) Conditions, Decreased Attenuation (Destructive) Conditions, CHAPTER 18: THE GRID, Purpose of the Grid, Grid Construction, Grid Patterns, Grid Types, Grid Uses, Grid Selection/Conversions, Grid Performance Evaluation, Grid Errors, Other Scatter Reduction Methods, CHAPTER 19: RADIOGRAPHIC FILM, Construction, Latent Image Formation, Types of Film, The Duplication Process, The Subtraction Process, Film Storage and Handling, Film Identification, CHAPTER 20: IMAGE PROCESSING, Developing, Fixing, Archiving, Automatic Processing, Darkroom, Silver Recovery System, CHAPTER 21: SENSITOMETRY, Sensitometric Equipment, The D Log E Curve, Film Characteristics, CHAPTER 22: INTENSIFYING SCREENS, Construction, Phosphors, Characteristics, Cassettes and Holders, Care, CHAPTER 23: FILM/SCREEN COMBINATIONS, Emission Spectra, Characteristics, Selecting Film/Speed Combinations, Clinical Choices,. UNIT IV: ANALYZING THE IMAGE, CHAPTER 24: ESTABLISHING IMAGING STANDARDS, Professional Imaging Standards, The Analytical Process, Acceptance Limits, CHAPTER 25: DENSITY, Assessing Density, Effects on Image Appearance, Factors Affecting Density, CHAPTER 26: CONTRAST, Assessing Contrast, Radiographic Contrast, Evaluation Contrast, Factors Affecting Contrast, CHAPTER 27: RECORDED DETAIL, Assessing Recorded Detail, Effects on Image Appearance, Factors Affecting Recorded Detail, CHAPTER 28: DISTORTION, Assessing Distortion, Factors Affecting Size Distortion, Factors Affecting Shape Distortion, Effect on Image Appearance, CHAPTER 29: THE ART OF FILM CRITIQUE, Implementing Imaging Standards, Identifying an Imaging Problem, An Effective Film Critique Method, Applying the Film Critique Method, CHAPTER 30: QUALITY CONTROL, Quality Assurance and Quality Control, Purchasing Equipment, Monitoring Equipment Performance, Ancillary Equipment, Repeat Film Studies, Troubleshooting. UNIT V: COMPARING EXPOSURE SYSTEMS: CHAPTER 31: DEVELOPING EXPOSURE CHARTS, System Selection, Anatomically Programmed Radiography, Establishing a Technique Chart, CHAPTER 32: FIXED KILOVOLTAGE SYSTEMS, Principles of Fixed Kilovoltage Exposure Systems, Establishing a Fixed Kilovoltage Peak Technique Chart, CHAPTER 33: VARIABLE KILOVOLTAGE SYSTEMS, Principles of a Variable Kilovoltage Peak Exposure System, Establishing a Stepped Variable kVp System, The Mayo Clinic Variable kVp System, Establishing a Mayo Clinic Variable kVp chart, CHAPTER 34: OTHER EXPOSURE SYSTEMS, XVS Unit Step System, Bit System, Supertech TM Calculator, Proportional Anatomy Systems, CHAPTER 35: AUTOMATIC EXPOSURE CONTROLS, Ionization Chambers, Positioning Skills, CHAPTER 36: EXPOSURE CONVERSATION PROBLEMS, Standard conversation Relationships and Tables, Solving Complex Exposure Problems. UNIVT VI: SPECIAL IMAGING SYSTEMS: CHAPTER 37: MOBILE RADIOGRAPHY, Special Patient Considerations, Special Radiation Protection Considerations, Types of Equipment, Automatic Exposure Control, Special Technical Factor Selection Considerations, CHAPTER 38: FLUOROSCOPY, Historical Development, Fluoroscopic Uses, Types of Equipment, Fluoroscopic X-Ray Tubes, Image Intensification Tubes, Fluoroscopic Generators, Image Quality, Viewing Systems, Recording the Fluoroscopic Image, Mobile Fluoroscopic Equipment, Radiation Protection During Fluoroscopy, CHAPTER 39: TOMOGRAPHY, The Tomographic Principle, Tomographic Quality, Types of Motion, Tomographic Procedures, CHAPTER 40: TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF MAMMOGRAPHY (Eugene D. Frank), Historical Development, Generator Characteristics, X-Ray Tube, Accessories, Resolution, Quality Control, CHAPTER 41: VASCULAR IMAGING EQUIPMENT (Joseph R. Bettengale and Donna C. Davis), Generators, X-Ray Tubes, Angiographic Tables, Image Recording Devices, Contrast Medium Injection Devices, Quality Control, CHAPTER 42: DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING, The Computer, Image Processing, Digital Image Quality, Computed Radiography and Fluoroscopy, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS), Laser Film Printers, CHAPTER 43: DIGITAL IMAGING, CHAPTER 44: COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, The Invention of Computed Tomography, Gantry, Table, X-Ray Tubes, Detectors, Computer, Display Console, CT Numbers (Hounsfield Units), Image Reconstruction, Image Quality, CHAPTER 45: MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, The Physics of Magnetic Resonance, Production of the Magnetic Resonance Image, Magnetic Resonance Imaging Equipment, Image Quality, Safety and Biological Hazards, APPENDIX A: ON A NEW KIND OF RAYS (W.C. Rontgen), APPENDIX B: AGFA'S TROUBLESHOOTING THE RADIOGRAPHIC SYSTEM: SYMPTOMS AND POSSIBLE CAUSES, APPENDIX C: DU PONT BIT SYSTEM, APPENDIX D: BASIC EXPOSURE TABLE: SIEMENS POINT SYSTEM, APPENDIX E: ANSWERS TO CASE STUDIES, APPENDIX F: EPIGRAPH SOURCES AND CREDITS

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