ISBN-10:
0130996963
ISBN-13:
9780130996961
Pub. Date:
11/09/2000
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy / Edition 3

Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy / Edition 3

by Sam Boggs

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780130996961
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 11/09/2000
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 726
Product dimensions: 8.28(w) x 11.28(h) x 1.30(d)

About the Author

Sam Boggs received his B.S. degree from the University of Kentucky in 1956 and a Ph.D. degree from the University of Colorado in 1964. He worked as a petroleum exploration geologist (1956-61) and a research geologist (1964-65) before coming to the University of Oregon in 1965. He is currently professor emeritus at the University. He also held one-year appointments at the University of Tokyo and National Taiwan University, and a six-month appointment at Argonne National Laboratory, University of Chicago. In addition, he worked intermittently (summers) as a research geologist for the U. S. Geological Survey. He has published numerous articles in professional journals as well as four books, including two textbooks in several editions each. His publications cover a wide variety of scientific disciplines: oceanography, sedimentology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, cathodoluminescence imaging, and backscattered electron microscopy.

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

The study of sedimentary rocks extends back in time to at least the 16th century, thus, placing sedimentology and stratigraphy among the oldest geologic disciplines. Nonetheless, they remain exciting fields of study today. New discoveries and innovative ideas continue to emerge as sedimentologists and stratigraphers, aided by advanced, modern tools, focus research efforts on new areas of study such as global climate change and isotope stratigraphy. Perhaps the most important new geologic concept to arise in the past half-century, for all disciplines of geology, was the concept of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics. This concept, which emerged in the early 1960s, hypothesized that Earth's outer shell is broken into a number of "plates," which are being driven apart along spreading ridges and shoved together along trenches. This elegantly simple idea paved the way for modern thinking about geologic processes and geologic history. Emergence of the seafloor-spreading model spurred research in many fields of geology, resulting in the generation of several other important sedimentological and stratigraphic concepts in the latter half of the 20th century.

Formulation of the concept of seafloor spreading was quickly followed by major developments in the fields of magnetostratigraphy (study of geomagnetic polarity reversals in volcanic and sedimentary rocks), seismic stratigraphy (study of seismic data for the purpose of extracting stratigraphic information), sequence stratigraphy, (application of the concepts of depositional sequences), and chemostratigraphy or isotope stratigraphy. Sedimentology and stratigraphy have thus largely shed theirprevious image as descriptive disciplines focused on rock descriptions and stratigraphic terminology. This book explores these new developments, and presents an integrated picture of the interrelationship of sedimentology and stratigraphy.

Although major developments of the stature of seafloor spreading have not taken place since the publication of the second edition of Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, new ideas have come along and fresh data have become available. A great deal of recent research focuses on factors such as global climate change, depositional environments, and sea-level changes. As career opportunities for geologists move away from the more traditional avenues of energy and mining toward environmental issues and applications to problems that affect society, it is important for students to keep abreast of new developments, as described in this third edition.

The third edition of Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy retains the basic structure of the previous editions; however, it has been thoroughly updated and new sections have been added covering areas such as paleoclimates, depositional environments, and sequence stratigraphy. Extensive changes have also been made in the artwork. Approximately half of the line drawings and photographs that appear in the third edition are new. The book is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate and graduate students; however, professionals may also find the book useful to update their knowledge of recent developments in the field. Although thorough and rigorous, the book requires only modest preparation in geology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics.

About the Author

In the early stages of his professional career, Sam Boggs, Jr., worked as a petroleum exploration geologist for Phillips Petroleum Company, searching for new oil fields in the Four-Corners region of the Rocky Mountains, prior to receiving his Ph.D. Degree from the University of Colorado. He then worked for a time as a research geologist for Exxon Production Research Company before beginning an academic career. After joining the University of Oregon in 1965, he taught and carried out research in sedimentary petrology, stratigraphy, field geology, petroleum geology, and geological oceanography: During sabbatical leaves from the Universtiy, he served as a Scientist-in-Residence at the Argonne National Laboratory, University of Chicago, visiting professor at the Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, and visiting professor at National Taiwan University's Institute of Oceanography. He was also employed part-time as a research geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey over a fifteen-year period. During his career, Dr. Boggs authored numerous scientific papers in sedimentary petrology, geological oceanography, stratigraphy, and low-temperature geochemistry. He is also author of four previous books. He currently lives in Eugene, Oregon, where he continues to do research as a Professor Emeritus at the Universtiy of Oregon.

Table of Contents

(NOTE: Each chapter begins with an "Introduction" and concludes with "Further Reading.")

I. ORIGIN AND TRANSPORT OF SEDIMENTARY MATERIALS.

1. Weathering, Soils, and Paleoclimates.
Subaerial Weathering Processes.
Physical Weathering. Chemical Weathering. Weathering Rates. Products of Subaerial Weathering.
Submarine Weathering Processes and Products. Soils.
Soil-Forming Processes. Soil Profiles and Soil Classification. Palesols. Recognition of Palesols.
Paleoclimates.
Paleoclimate Indicators. Causes of Climatic Variations—Forcing Factors. Influence of Climate on the Sedimentary Record. Paleoclimate Modeling. Major Paleoclimatic Patterns on Earth.
Concluding Remarks.

2. Transport and Deposition of Siliciclastic Sediment.
Fundamentals of Fluid Flow.
Types of Fluids. Laminar versus Turbulent Flow. Reynolds Number. Velocity Profile and Bed Roughness. Boundary Shear Stress. Froude Number.
Particle Transport by Fluids.
Particle Entrainment by Currents. Role of Particle Settling Velocity in Transport. Sediment Loads and Transport Paths. Sediment Transport and Bedform Generation. Transport by Wind. Transport by Glacial Ice. Deposits of Fluid Flows.
Particle Transport by Sediment Gravity Flows.
Turbidity Currents. Liquefied Flows. Grain Flows. Debris Flows and Mud Flows.

II. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS.

3. Sedimentary Textures.
Grain Size.
Grain-Size Scales. Measuring Grain Size. Graphical and Mathematical Treatment of Grain-Size Data. Application and Importance of Grain-Size Data.
Particle Shape.
Particle Form. Roundness. Surface Texture. Fourier Shape Analysis.
Fabric.
Grain Orientation. Grain Packing, Grain-to-Grain Relations, and Porosity.

4. Sedimentary Structures.
Kinds of Primary Sedimentary Structures. Stratification and Bedforms.
Bedding and Lamination. Ripples and Cross-Bedding. Ripple Cross-Lamination. Flaser and Lenticular Bedding. Hummocky Cross-Stratification. Irregular Stratification.
Bedding-Plane Markings.
Markings Generated by Erosion and Deposition. Markings Generated by Deformation: Load Casts. Biogenic Structures. Bedding-Plane Markings of Miscellaneous Origin.
Other Structures.
Sandstone Dikes and Sills. Structures of Secondary Origin.
Paleocurrent Analysis from Sedimentary Structures.

III. COMPOSITION, CLASSIFICATION, AND DIAGENESIS OF SEDIMENTARY ROCKS.

5. Siliciclastic Sedimentary Rocks.
Sandstones.
Framework Mineralogy. Mineral Cements. Chemical Composition. Classification of Sandstones. Sandstone Maturity. General Characteristics of Major Classes of Sandstones.
Conglomerates.
Particle Composition. Classification. Origin and Occurrence of Conglomerates.
Shales.
Composition. Classification. Origin and Occurrence of Shales.
Provenance Significance of Mineral Compositions. Diagenesis.
Stages and Realms of Diagenesis. Major Diagenetic Processes and Effects.

6. Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks.
Elemental Chemistry. Mineralogy. Limestone Textures.
Carbonate Grains. Microcrystalline Calcite. Sparry Calcite.
Dolomite Textures. Structures in Carbonate Rocks. Classification of Carbonate Rocks. Origin of Carbonate Rocks.
Limestone. The Role of Organisms in Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate. Dolomites. Other Factors Affecting Early Dolomization.
Diagenesis.
Regimes of Carbonate Diagenesis. Major Diagenetic Processes and Changes. Summary Results of Carbonate Diagenesis.

7. Other Chemical/Biochemical and Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks.
Evaporites.
Composition. Kinds of Evaporites. Origin of Evaporite Deposits. Diagenesis of Evaporites.
Siliceous Sedimentary Rocks (Cherts).
Mineralogy and Texture. Chemical Composition. Varieties of Chert. Bedded Chert. Nodular Cherts. Origin of Cherts.
Iron-Bearing Sedimentary Rocks.
Kinds of Iron-Rich Sedimentary Rocks. Iron-Formations. Ironstones. Iron-Rich Shales. Miscellaneous Iron-Rich Sediments. Origin of Iron Formations and Ironstones.
Sedimentary Phospohrites.
Composition of Phosphorites. Characteristics of Phosphate Deposits. Principal Kinds of Phosphorite Deposits. Origin of Phosphorites. Summary of Phosphorite Deposition. An Alternate View.
Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks: Coal, Oil Shale, Bitumens.
Introduction. Kinds of Organic Matter in Sedimentary Rocks. Classification of Carbonaceous Sedimentary Rocks. Oil Shale (Kerogen Shale). Petroleum and Natural Bitumins.

IV. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS.

8. Principles of Environmental Interpretation and Classification.
Concept of Environment. Sedimentary Processes and Products.
Sedimentary Process and Response. Facies Associations.
Basic Tools of Environmental Analysis. Classification of Depositional Environments. Facies Models.
Definition of Models. Types of Facies Models. Construction and Use of Models.

9. Continental Environments.
Fluvial Systems.
Alluvial Fans. River Systems.
Eolian Desert Systems.
Introduction. Transport and Depositional Process. Deposits of Modern Deserts. Kinds of Eolian Systems. Bounding Surfaces in Eolian Deposits. Ancient Desert Deposits.
Lacustrine Systems.
Origin and Size of Lakes. Sedimentation Processes in Lakes. Characteristics of Lacustrine Deposits. Recognition of Ancient Lake Deposits. Examples of Ancient Lake Deposits.
Glacial Systems.
Introduction. Environmental Setting. Transport and Deposition in Glacial Environments. Glacial Facies. Continental Ice Facies. Marine Glacial Facies. Vertical Facies Successions. Ancient Glacial Deposits.

10. Marginal Marine Environments.
Deltaic Systems.
Introduction. Delta Classification and Sedimentation Processes. Physiographic and Sediment Characteristics of Alluvial Deltaic Systems. Progradational and Transgressive Phases of Delta Development. Recognition of Ancient Deltaic Deposits. Ancient Deltaic Systems.
Beach and Barrier Island Systems.
Introduction. Depositional Setting. Depositional Processes on Beaches. Characteristics of Beach and Barrier-Island Deposits in Modern Environments. Transgressive and Regressive Beach and Barrier-Island Deposits in the Geologic Record.
Estuarine Systems.
Introduction. Physiography of Estuaries and Lagoons. Hydrologic and Sediment Characteristics.
Lagoonal Systems.
Ancient Lagoonal Deposits.
Tidal-Flat Systems.
Introduction. Depositional Setting. Sedimentation Process. Characteristics of Tidal-Flat Sediments. Ancient Tidal-Flat Sediments.

11. Siliciclastic Marine Environments.
The Neritic (Shelf) Environment.
Physiography and Depositional Setting. Shelf Sediment Transport and Deposition. Wave- and Storm-Dominated Shelves. Tide-Dominated Shelves. Shelves Dominated by Intruding Ocean Currents. Shelf Transport by Density Currents. Effects of Sea-Level Change on Shelf Transport. Biologic Activities on Shelves. Ancient Siliciclastic Shelf Sediments.
The Oceanic (Deep-Water) Environment.
Depositional Setting. Transport and Depositional Processes to and within Deep Water. Principal Kinds of Modern Deep-Sea Sediments. Terrigenous Sediments. Pelagic Sediments. Chemical Sediments. Ancient Deep-Sea Sediments.

12. Carbonate and Evaporite Environments.
Carbonate Shelf (Nonreef) Environments.
Depositional Setting. Sedimentation Processes. Skeletal and Sediment Characteristics of Carbonate Deposits. Examples of Modern Carbonate Platforms. Examples of Ancient Carbonate Shelf Successions.
Slope/Basin Carbonates. Organic Reef Environments.
Modern Reefs and Reef Environments. Ancient Reefs.
Mixed Carbonate-Siliciclastic Systems. Evaporite Environments.
General Statement. Modern Evaporite Environments. Ancient Evaporate Environments.

V. PRINCIPLES OF STRATIGRAPHY AND BASIN ANALYSIS.

13. Lithostratigraphy.
Types of Lithostratigraphic Units. Stratigraphic Contacts.
Contacts between Conformable Strata. Contacts between Laterally Adjacent Lithosomes. Unconformable Contacts.
Vertical and Lateral Successions of Strata.
Nature of Vertical Successions. Cyclic Successions. Sedimentary Facies. Walthers Law of Succession of Facies. Effects of Climate and Sea Level on Sedimentation Patterns.
Nomenclature and Classification of Lithostratigraphic Units.
Development of the Stratigraphic Code. Major Types of Stratigraphic Units. Formal Lithostratigraphic Units.
Correlation of Lithostratigraphic Units.
Introduction. Definition of Correlation. Lithocorrelation.

14. Seismic Stratigraphy.
Early Development of Seismic Methods. Principles of Reflection Seismic Methods.
On-Land Surveying. Marine Seismic Surveying.
Application of Reflection Seismic Methods to Stratigraphic Analysis.
Parameters Used in Seismic Stratigraphic Interpretation. Procedures in Seismic Stratigraphic Analysis. Identification of Depositional Sequences.
Correlation by Seismic Events. Nomenclature and Classification of Seismic Stratigraphic Units.

15. Sequence Stratigraphy.
Fundamental Concepts of Sequence Stratigraphy. Methods and Applications of Sequence Stratigraphy.
Methods. Range of Environmental Application.
Global Sea-Level Analysis.
General Principles. The Reliability of Sea-Level Analysis from Sequence-Stratigraphic Data.
Concluding Remarks.

16. Magnetostratigraphy.
Sampling, Measuring, and Displaying Remanent Magnetism. Development of the Magnetic Polarity Time Scale. Nomenclature and Classification of Magnetostratigraphic Units. Applications of Magnetostratigraphy and Paleomagnetism.
Correlation. Geochronolgoy. Paleoclimatolgoy. Other Applications of Paleomagnetism.

17. Biostratigraphy.
Fossils as a Basis for Stratigraphic Subdivision.
Principle of Faunal Succession. Concept of Stage. Concept of Zone.
Biostratigraphic Units.
Principal Categories of Zones. Rank of Biostratigaphic Units. Naming Biostratigraphic Units.
The Basis for Biostratigraphic Zonation: Changes in Organisms through Time.
Evolution. Taxonomic Classification and Importance of Species. Changes in Species through Time. Models and Rates of Evolution.
Distribution of Organisms in Space: Paleobiogeography.
Dispersal of Organisms. Barriers to Dispersal.
Combined Effects of the Distribution of Organisms in Time and Space. Biocorrelation.
Correlation by Assemblage Zones. Correlation by Abundance Zones. Chronocorrelation by Fossils. Correlation by Biologic Interval Zones. Correlation by Biogeographical Abundance Zones.

18. Chronostratigraphy and Geologic Time.
Geologic Time Units. The Geologic Time Scale.
Purpose and Scope. Development of the Geologic Time Scale.
Calibrating the Geologic Time Scale.
Calibrating the Geologic Time Scale by Fossils: Biochronology. Calibrating by Absolute Ages: Radiochronology.
Chronocorrelation.
Event Correlation and Event Stratigraphy. Correlation by Stable Isotope Events. Problems with Isotopic Chronocorrelation.

19. Basin Analysis, Tectonics, and Sedimentation.
Mechanisms of Basin Formation (Subsidence). Kinds of Sedimentary Basins.
Intracratonic Basins. Rifts. Aulacogens. Continental Rises and Terraces. Intraplate Basins Floored by Oceanic Crust. Subduction-Related Basins. Strike-Slip/Transform-Fault-Related Settings. Collision-Related Settings.
Sedimentary Basin Fill. Techniques of Basin Analysis.
Measuring Stratigraphic Sections. Preparation of Stratigraphic Maps and Cross Sections. Paleocurrent Analysis and Paleocurrent Maps. Siliciclastic Petrofacies (Provenance) Studies. Geophysical Studies.
Applications of Basic Analysis.
Interpreting Geologic History. Economic Applications.
Relationship of Tectonics and Sedimentation.

Appendix A: Shields Diagram.
Appendix B: North American Stratigraphic Code.
Appendix C: Nomenclature of Chronostretigraphic Units.
Appendix D: Major Kinds of Sedimentary Basins and Their Tectonic Settings.
Appendix E: : Web Sites Pertaining to Sedimentology and Stratigraphy.
Bibliography.
Index.

Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

The study of sedimentary rocks extends back in time to at least the 16th century, thus, placing sedimentology and stratigraphy among the oldest geologic disciplines. Nonetheless, they remain exciting fields of study today. New discoveries and innovative ideas continue to emerge as sedimentologists and stratigraphers, aided by advanced, modern tools, focus research efforts on new areas of study such as global climate change and isotope stratigraphy. Perhaps the most important new geologic concept to arise in the past half-century, for all disciplines of geology, was the concept of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics. This concept, which emerged in the early 1960s, hypothesized that Earth's outer shell is broken into a number of "plates," which are being driven apart along spreading ridges and shoved together along trenches. This elegantly simple idea paved the way for modern thinking about geologic processes and geologic history. Emergence of the seafloor-spreading model spurred research in many fields of geology, resulting in the generation of several other important sedimentological and stratigraphic concepts in the latter half of the 20th century.

Formulation of the concept of seafloor spreading was quickly followed by major developments in the fields of magnetostratigraphy (study of geomagnetic polarity reversals in volcanic and sedimentary rocks), seismic stratigraphy (study of seismic data for the purpose of extracting stratigraphic information), sequence stratigraphy, (application of the concepts of depositional sequences), and chemostratigraphy or isotope stratigraphy. Sedimentology and stratigraphy have thus largely shedtheirprevious image as descriptive disciplines focused on rock descriptions and stratigraphic terminology. This book explores these new developments, and presents an integrated picture of the interrelationship of sedimentology and stratigraphy.

Although major developments of the stature of seafloor spreading have not taken place since the publication of the second edition of Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy, new ideas have come along and fresh data have become available. A great deal of recent research focuses on factors such as global climate change, depositional environments, and sea-level changes. As career opportunities for geologists move away from the more traditional avenues of energy and mining toward environmental issues and applications to problems that affect society, it is important for students to keep abreast of new developments, as described in this third edition.

The third edition of Principles of Sedimentology and Stratigraphy retains the basic structure of the previous editions; however, it has been thoroughly updated and new sections have been added covering areas such as paleoclimates, depositional environments, and sequence stratigraphy. Extensive changes have also been made in the artwork. Approximately half of the line drawings and photographs that appear in the third edition are new. The book is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate and graduate students; however, professionals may also find the book useful to update their knowledge of recent developments in the field. Although thorough and rigorous, the book requires only modest preparation in geology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics.

About the Author

In the early stages of his professional career, Sam Boggs, Jr., worked as a petroleum exploration geologist for Phillips Petroleum Company, searching for new oil fields in the Four-Corners region of the Rocky Mountains, prior to receiving his Ph.D. Degree from the University of Colorado. He then worked for a time as a research geologist for Exxon Production Research Company before beginning an academic career. After joining the University of Oregon in 1965, he taught and carried out research in sedimentary petrology, stratigraphy, field geology, petroleum geology, and geological oceanography: During sabbatical leaves from the Universtiy, he served as a Scientist-in-Residence at the Argonne National Laboratory, University of Chicago, visiting professor at the Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, and visiting professor at National Taiwan University's Institute of Oceanography. He was also employed part-time as a research geologist with the U.S. Geological Survey over a fifteen-year period. During his career, Dr. Boggs authored numerous scientific papers in sedimentary petrology, geological oceanography, stratigraphy, and low-temperature geochemistry. He is also author of four previous books. He currently lives in Eugene, Oregon, where he continues to do research as a Professor Emeritus at the Universtiy of Oregon.

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