Principles of Toxicology

Principles of Toxicology

by Stine Karen, Thomas M. Brown

Hardcover(Older Edition)

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780873716840
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 06/27/1996
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 272
Product dimensions: 6.41(w) x 9.60(h) x 0.81(d)

About the Author

Karen E. Stine, PhD, is a professor of Biology and former dean of the School of Sciences at Auburn University at Montgomery in Alabama, USA. She has also served as the director of the undergraduate toxicology program at Ashland University in Ohio. She earned her PhD in toxicology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. Stine is a member of the Society of Toxicology and the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. At Clemson University, Dr. Stine co-developed and co-taught a Principles of Toxicology course that was open to both undergraduate and graduate students. Her research interests are in the area of mechanisms of toxicity and focus on the role of stress proteins in cellular function and dysfunction. Dr. Stine has also authored or co-authored several research publications in the field of toxicology.

Thomas Miller Brown, PhD, is president of Genectar Com LLC in Whitefish, Montana, USA which conducts research in toxicology, genetics, and genomics, now focusing on pigment cell development in the common wood nymph butterfly as a melanoma model. He earned his PhD from Michigan State University. Formerly a professor, Dr. Brown taught Toxicology of Insecticides, Principles of Toxicology, and Insect Biotechnology. He also led the discovery of an actively transposing short interspersed nuclear element (Insect Science 16:219–226). He has published papers on the biochemical toxicology of organophosphorus compounds and on the mechanisms of insecticide resistance in insects. Dr. Brown has also conducted research at Nagoya University and Tsukuba Science City in Japan.

Table of Contents

Measuring Toxicity and Assessing Risk
Introduction
Chemistry of Toxicants
Toxicity Testing Methods
Factors to be Considered in Planning Toxicity Testing
The LD50 (Median Lethal Dose) Experiment
No Observed Adverse Effect Levels
Mixtures
Toxicity, Hazard, and Risk
Case Study: Risk, Perception, and Vaccination
Bibliography

Toxicokinetics
Introduction
Absorption
Distribution
Elimination
Toxicokinetic Models
Contrasting Kinetics of Lipophilic Substances
Bibliography

Biotransformation
Introduction
Primary Biotransformation (Phase I Reactions): Hydrolysis
Primary Biotransformation (Phase I Reactions): Oxidation
Primary Biotransformation (Phase I Reactions): Reduction
Secondary Metabolism (Phase II Reactions)
Factors that Influence Metabolism
Bibliography

Cellular Sites of Action
Introduction
Interaction of Toxicants with Proteins
Effects of Toxicants on Lipids
Effects of Toxicants on Nucleic Acids
Mechanisms of Cell Death
Case Study: Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors
Bibliography

Genomics and New Genetics in Toxicology
Introduction
The Human Genome Project
Toxicogenomics
Metabolomics
Personalized Susceptibility and Tailored Therapeutics
Race, Ethics, and Genomics
Systems Toxicology
Case Study: Using GenBank and Online Tools in Genomics
Bibliography

Carcinogenesis
Cancer
The Epidemiology of Cancer
Carcinogenesis
Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes
Chemical Carcinogens: Initiation
Chemical Carcinogens: Promotion
Protection against the Development of Cancer
Testing Compounds for Carcinogenicity
Critiques of Strategies in Cancer Research
Carcinogenesis: A Complex Process
Case Study: Predicting Carcinogenesis Based upon
Chemistry (QSAR)
Bibliography

Reproductive Toxicology and Teratology
Introduction
Basic Processes in Reproduction and Development: Cell Division
The Male Reproductive System
The Female Reproductive System
The Effects of Toxicants on the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
The Process of Development
Embryogenesis and Developmental Genetics
Effects of Toxicants on Development: Teratogens and
Teratogenesis
Testing for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity
Case Study: Thalidomide
Bibliography

Respiratory Toxicology
Function of the Respiratory System
Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System
Pulmonary Ventilation
Effects of Toxicants on the Respiratory System: General Principles
Defense Mechanisms of the Respiratory System
Exposure to Respiratory Toxicants
Immediate Responses to Respiratory Toxicants: Mechanisms
Immediate Responses to Respiratory Toxicants: Effects on
Upper and Lower Airways
Delayed and Cumulative Responses to Respiratory Toxicants
Inhalation Studies
Case study: Nanoparticles
Bibliography

Cardiovascular Toxicology
Function of the Cardiovascular System
Anatomy and Physiology of the Heart
Effects of Toxicants on the Heart
The Vascular System
Effects of Toxicants on the Vascular System
The Blood
Effects of Toxicants on the Blood
Effects of Toxicants on Platelets and Coagulation
Bibliography

Neurotoxicology
Function of the Nervous System
Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System
Effects of Toxicants on the Nervous System: General Principles
Effects of Toxicants on the Nervous System: General Categories
Effects of Toxicants on Electrical Conduction
Effects of Toxicants on Synaptic Function
Axonopathies
Myelinopathies
Effects of Toxicants Directly on Neurons and Glial Cells
Other Neurotoxicants
Effects on Special Sensory Organs
Developmental Effects
Methods in Neurotoxicology
Case Study: Botulinum Toxin
Bibliography

Hepatic Toxicology
Anatomy and Physiology of the Liver
Function of the Liver
Types of Toxicant-Induced Liver Injury
Response to Liver Injury
Evaluating Liver Injury and Treating Disease
Case Study: Reye’s Syndrome
Bibliography

Renal Toxicology
Function of the Kidneys
Anatomy and Physiology of the Kidneys
Effects of Toxicants on the Kidney: General Principles
Damage to the Glomerulus
Damage to the Proximal Tubule
The Remainder of the Tubule
Measurement of Kidney Function In Vivo
Measurement of Kidney Function In Vitro
Compensation following Renal Damage
Bibliography

Immunotoxicology
Function of the Immune System
Nonspecific Defense Mechanisms
Specific Defense Mechanisms
Effects of Toxicants on the Immune System
Methods for Studying Immunotoxicity
Bibliography

Ecological Toxicology
Introduction
Effects of Toxicants at the Population Level
Effects of Toxicants at the Community Level
Effects of Toxicants at the Ecosystem Level
Examples of Ecosystems and Vulnerability to Impact by Toxicants
Case Study: Plastic Debris in the Marine Environment
Climate Change and Ecotoxicology
Ecotoxicological Testing Methods
Bibliography

Applications: Pharmacology and Toxicology
Basic Principles of Pharmacology
Drug Development and the Role of Toxicology
Preclinical Studies
Clinical Studies
Generic Drugs
Toxicogenomics and Drug Safety
The Return of Natural Products: Regulatory Issues
Bibliography

Applications: Forensic Toxicology
Analytical Toxicology
Forensic Toxicology and Alcohol Use
Forensic Toxicology and Illegal Drug Use
Criminal Poisonings
Bibliography

Applications: Environmental Toxicology and Pollution
Air Pollution
Water Pollution
Toxic Wastes
Case Study: Pharmaceuticals in the Water Supply
Bibliography

Applications: Radiation
Basic Types of Radiation
Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Biological Tissues
Sources of Ionizing Radiation
Physiological Effects of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation
Nonionizing Radiation
Radiation Safety
Case Study: Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima
Bibliography

Applications: Food Safety
Food Additives
Chemical Contaminants in Foods
Transgenic Foods
Regulations and Regulatory Agencies
Bibliography

Applications: Toxins
Toxins
Bacterial Toxins
Protist Toxins
Fungal Toxins
Plant Toxins
Animal Toxins
Bibliography

Appendix: List of Selected Toxicants

Index

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