ISBN-10:
1555814794
ISBN-13:
9781555814793
Pub. Date:
12/01/2008
Publisher:
ASM Press
Principles of Virology: Molecular Biology / Edition 3

Principles of Virology: Molecular Biology / Edition 3

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Overview

Best-selling textbook fills the gap between introductory texts and advanced reviews of major virus families.

  • Focuses on concepts and principles to present a comprehensive treatment from molecular biology to pathogenesis and control of viral infections.
  • Illustrates why and how animal viruses are studied and demonstrates how the knowledge gained from such model viruses can be used to study viral systems that are still relatively unknown.
  • Provides a thorough introduction to principles of viral pathogenesis, a broad view of viral evolution, a discussion of how viruses were discovered, and an explanation of the history of the discipline of virology.


Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781555814793
Publisher: ASM Press
Publication date: 12/01/2008
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 435
Product dimensions: 8.50(w) x 10.80(h) x 0.90(d)

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Volume I: Molecular Biology

Part I: The Science of Virology

1. Foundations

Luria's Credo

Why We Study Viruses

Viruses Are Everywhere

Viruses Cause Human Disease

Viruses Infect All Living Things

Viruses Can Cross Species Boundaries

Viruses "R" Us

Viruses Are Uniquely Valuable Tools with Which To Study Biology

Viruses Can Also Be Used To Manipulate Biology

Virus Prehistory

Viral Infections in Antiquity

The First Vaccines

Microorganisms as Pathogenic Agents

Discovery of Viruses

The Definitive Properties of Viruses

The Structural Simplicity of Viruses

The Intracellular Parasitism of Viruses

Viruses Defined

Cataloging Animal Viruses

The Classical System

Classification by Genome Type

The Baltimore System

A Common Strategy for Viral Propagation

Perspectives

References

2. The Infectious Cycle

Introduction

The Infectious Cycle

The Cell

The Architecture of Cell Surfaces

The Extracellular Matrix: Components and Biological Importance

Properties of the Plasma Membrane

Cell Membrane Proteins

Entering Cells

Making Viral RNA

Making Viral Proteins

Making Viral Genomes

Forming Progeny Virions

Viral Pathogenesis

Overcoming Host Defenses

Cultivation of Viruses

Cell Culture

Embryonated Eggs

Laboratory Animals

Assay of Viruses

Measurement of Infectious Units

Efficiency of Plating

Measurement of Virus Particles and Their Components

Viral Growth: The Burst Concept

The One-Step Growth Cycle

Initial Concept

One-Step Growth Analysis: a Valuable Tool for Studying Animal Viruses

Perspectives

References

Part II: Molecular Biology

Genomes and Genetics

Introduction

Genome Principles and the Baltimore System

Structure and Complexity of Viral Genomes

DNA Genomes

RNA Genomes

What Do Viral Genomes Look Like in the Virus?

Coding Strategies

What Can Viral Sequences Tell Us?

The Origin of Viral Genomes

The "Big and Small" of Viral Genomes: Does Size Matter?

Genetic Analysis of Viruses

Classical Genetic Methods

Engineering Mutations into Viral Genomes

Genetic Interference by Double-Stranded RNA

Engineering Viral Genomes: Viral Vectors

Perspectives

References

4. Structure

Introduction

Functions of the Virion

Nomenclature

Methods for Studying Virus Structure

Building a Protective Coat

Helical Structures

Capsids or Nucleocapsids with Icosahedral Symmetry

Packaging the Nucleic Acid Genome

Direct Contact of the Genome with a Protein Shell

Packaging by Specialized Virion Proteins

Packaging by Cellular Proteins

Viruses with Envelopes
Viral Envelope Components
Simple Enveloped Viruses: Direct Contact of External Proteins with the Capsid or Nucleocapsid

Enveloped Viruses with an Additional Protein Layer

Complex Viruses

Bacteriophage T4

Herpesviruses

Poxviruses

Other Components of Virions

Virion Enzymes

Other Viral Proteins

Nongenomic Viral Nucleic Acid

Cellular Macromolecules

Perspectives

References

5. Attachment and Entry

Introduction

Attachment of Viruses to Cells

General Principles

Identification of Cell Receptors for Virus Particles

Examples of Cell Receptors

How Virions Attach to Cell Receptors

Endocytosis of Virions by Cells

Membrane Fusion

Movement of Virions and Subviral Particles within Cells

Virus-Induced Signaling via Cell Receptors

Mechanisms of Uncoating

Uncoating at the Plasma Membrane

Uncoating during Endocytosis

Import of Viral Genomes into the Nucleus

Nuclear Localization Signals

The Nuclear Pore Complex

The Nuclear Import Pathway

Import of Influenza Virus Ribonucleoprotein

Import of DNA Genomes

Import of Retroviral Genomes

Perspectives

References

6. Synthesis of RNA from RNA Templates

Introduction

The Nature of the RNA Template

The RNA Synthesis Machinery

Identification of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases

Sequence Relationships among RNA Polymerases

Three-Dimensional Structure of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases

Mechanisms of RNA Synthesis

Initiation

Elongation

Template Specificity

Unwinding the RNA Template

Role of Cellular Proteins

Why Are There Unequal Amounts of (-) and (+) Strands?

Do Ribosomes and RNA Polymerases Collide?

Synthesis of Poly(A)

The Switch from mRNA Production to Genome RNA Synthesis

Different RNA Polymerases for mRNA Synthesis and Genome Replication

Suppression of Intergenic Stop-Start Reactions by Nucleocapsid Protein

Suppression of Termination Induced by a Stem-Loop Structure

Different Templates Used for mRNA Synthesis and Genome Replication

Suppression of Polyadenylation

The Same Template Used for mRNA Synthesis and Genome Replication

Cellular Sites of Viral RNA Synthesis

Origins of Diversity in RNA Viruses

Misincorporation of Nucleotides

Segment Reassortment and RNA Recombination

RNA Editing

Perspectives

References

7. Reverse Transcription and Integration

Retroviral Reverse Transcription

Discovery

Impact

The Pathways of Reverse Transcription

General Properties and Structure of Retroviral Reverse Transcriptases

There Are Many Other Examples of Reverse Transcription

Retroviral DNA Integration is a Unique Process

Integrase-Catalyzed Steps in the Integration Process

Integrase Structure and Mechanism

Hepadnaviral Reverse Transcription

A DNA Virus with Reverse Transcriptase?

Pathway of Reverse Transcription

Perspectives

References

8. Transcription Strategies: DNA Templates

Introduction

Properties of Cellular RNA Polymerases That Transcribe Viral DNA

Some Viral Genomes Must Be Converted to Templates for Transcription

Transcription by RNA Polymerase II

Regulation of RNA Polymerase II Transcription

Proteins That Regulate Transcription Share Common Properties

Transcription of Viral DNA Templates by the Cellular Machinery Alone

Viral Proteins That Regulate RNA Polymerase II Transcription

Patterns of Regulation

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Tat Protein Autoregulates Transcription

The Transcriptional Cascades of DNA Viruses

Entry into One of Two Alternative Transcription Programs

Transcription of Viral Genes by RNA Polymerase III

RNA Polymerase III Transcribes the Adenoviral VA-RNA Genes

Inhibition of the Cellular Transcription Machinery in Virus-Infected Cells

Unusual Functions of Cellular Transcription Components

A Viral DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

Perspectives

References

9. Genome Replication Strategies: DNA Viruses

Introduction

DNA Synthesis by the Cellular Replication Machinery: Lessons from Simian Virus 40

Eukaryotic Replicons

Cellular Replication Proteins and Their Functions during Simian Virus 40 DNA Synthesis

Mechanisms of Viral DNA Synthesis

Priming and Elongation

Properties of Viral Replication Origins

Recognition of Viral Replication Origins

Viral DNA Synthesis Machines

Resolution and Processing of Viral Replication Products

Mechanisms of Exponential Viral DNA Replication

Viral Gene Products Can Induce Synthesis of Cellular Replication Proteins

Synthesis of Viral Replication Machine and Accessory Enzymes

Viral DNA Replication Independent of Cellular Proteins

Delayed Synthesis of Virion Structural Proteins Prevents Premature Packing of Templates

Inhibition of Cellular DNA Synthesis

Viral DNAs Are Synthesized in Specialized Intracellular Compartments

Limited Replication of Viral DNA

Integrated Parvoviral DNA Can Replicate as Part of the Cellular Genome

Regulation of Replication via Different Viral Origins: Epstein-Barr Virus

Controlled and Exponential Replication from a Single Origin: the Papillomaviruses

Origins of Genetic Diversity in DNA Viruses

Fidelity of Replication by Viral DNA Polymerases

Inhibition of Repair of Double-Stranded Breaks in DNA

Recombination of Viral Genomes

Perspectives

References

10. Processing of Viral Pre-mRNA

Introduction

Covalent Modification during Viral Pre-mRNA Processing

Capping the 5' Ends of Viral mRNA

Synthesis of 3' Poly(A) Segments of Viral mRNA

Splicing of Viral Pre-mRNA

Alternative Splicing of Viral Pre-mRNA

Editing of Viral mRNAs

Export of Viral and Cellular RNAs from the Nucleus

The Cellular Export Machinery

Export of Viral mRNA

Posttranscriptional Regulation of Viral or Cellular Gene Expression by Viral Proteins

Temporal Control of Viral Gene Expression

Viral Proteins Can Inhibit Cellular mRNA Production

Regulation of Turnover of Viral and Cellular mRNAs in the Cytoplasm

Regulation of mRNA Stability by a Viral Protein

Regulation of mRNA Stability in Transformation

Production and Function of Small RNAs that Inhibit Gene Expression

Small Interfering RNAs, Micro-RNAs, and Their Synthesis

Viral Micro-RNAs

Viral Gene Products That Block RNA Interference

Perspectives

References

11. Control of Translation

Introduction

Mechanisms of Eukaryotic Protein Synthesis

General Structure of Eukaryotic mRNA

The Translation Machinery

Initiation

Elongation and Termination

The Diversity of Viral Translation Strategies

Polyprotein Synthesis

Leaky Scanning

Reinitiation

Suppression of Termination

Ribosomal Frameshifting

Bicistronic mRNAs

Regulation of Translation during Viral Infection

Inhibition of Translation Initiation after Viral Infection

Regulation of eIF4F

Regulation of Poly(A)-Binding Protein Activity

Regulation of eIF3

Perspectives

References

12. Intracellular Trafficking

Introduction

Assembly within the Nucleus

Import of Viral Proteins for Assembly

Assembly at the Plasma Membrane

Transport of Viral Membrane Proteins to the Plasma Membrane

Sorting of Viral Proteins in Polarized Cells

Inhibition of Transport of Cellular Proteins by Viral Infection

Signal Sequence-Independent Transport of Viral Proteins to the Plasma Membrane

Interactions with Internal Cellular Membranes

Localization of Viral Proteins to Compartments of the Secretory Pathway

Localization of Viral Proteins to the Nuclear Membrane

Transport of Viral Genomes to Assembly Sites

Transport of Genomic and Pregenomic RNA from the Nucleus to the Cytoplasm

Transport of Genomes from the Cytoplasm to the Plasma Membrane

Perspectives

References

13. Assembly, Exit, and Maturation

Introduction

Methods of Studying Virus Assembly and Egress

Structural Studies of Virus Particles

Visualization of Assembly and Exit by Microscopy

Biochemical and Genetic Analysis of Assembly Intermediates

Methods Based on Recombinant DNA Technology

Assembly of Protein Shells

Formation of Structural Units

Capsid and Nucleocapsid Assembly

Self-Assembly and Assisted Assembly Reactions

Selective Packaging of the Viral Genome and Other Virion Components

Concerted or Sequential Assembly

Recognition and Packaging of the Nucleic Acid Genome

Incorporation of Virion Enzymes and other Nonstructural Proteins

Acquisition of an Envelope

Sequential Assembly of Internal Components and Budding from a Cellular Membrane

Coordination of the Assembly of Internal Structures with the Acquisition of the Envelope

Release of Virus Particles

Release of Nonenveloped Viruses

Assembly at the Plasma Membrane: Budding of Virus Particles

Assembly at Internal Membranes: the Problem of Exocytosis

Maturation of Progeny Virions

Proteolytic Processing of Virion Proteins

Other Maturation Reactions

Cell-to-Cell Spread

Perspectives

References

Appendix: Structure, Genome Organization, and Infectious Cycles

Glossary

Index

Volume II: Pathogenesis and Control

1. Infection of a Susceptible Host

Introduction

A Brief History of Viral Pathogenesis

Microbes as Infectious Agents

The First Human Viruses

The Golden Age of Viral Pathogenesis

The New Millennium and Viral Pathogenesis

Infection Basics

A Series of Unfortunate Events

Initiating an Infection

Viral Entry

Successful Infections Must Evade Host Defenses

Viral Spread

Organ Invasion

Tropism

Perspectives

References

2. Infection of Populations

Introduction

Principles of Viral Pathogenesis

Statistics

Epidemiology

Shedding of Virions

Transmission of Viral Infection

Geography and Season

Viral Virulence

Host Susceptibility to Viral Disease

Other Determinants of Susceptibility

Perspectives

References

3. Virus Offense Meets Host Defense: Early Actions

The Host Defense against Viral Infections

Primary Physical and Chemical Defenses

The First Critical Moments of Infection

Intrinsic Cellular Defenses

Receptor-Mediated Recognition of Pathogen-Associated Molecules

Cytokines, the Primary Output of Intrinsic Cell Defense

Interferons, Cytokines of Early Warning and Action

Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death)

The Hostile Cytoplasm: Other Intrinsic Defenses

Autophagy

Epigenetic Silencing

RNA Silencing

Cytosine Deamination (Apobec, Apolipoprotein B Editing Complex)

Trim Proteins (Tripartite Interaction Motif)

Perspectives

References

4. Immune Defenses

Introduction

Innate and Adaptive Immune Defenses

The Innate Immune Response

General Features

Sentinel Cells

Natural Killer Cells

Complement

The Inflammatory Response

The Adaptive Immune Response

General Features

Cells of the Adaptive Immune System

Adaptive Immunity: the Action of Lymphocytes That Carry Distinct Antigen Receptors

Antigen Presentation and Activation of Immune Cells

The Cell-Mediated Adaptive Response

The Antibody Response

The Immune System and the Brain

Immunopathology: Too Much of a Good Thing

Immunopathological Lesions

Viral Infection-Induced Immunosuppression

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

Autoimmune Diseases

Heterologous T-Cell Immunity

Superantigens “Short-Circuit” the Immune System

Mechanisms Mediated by Free Radicals

Perspectives

References

5. Patt

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