This volume is a summary of a 1S-year effort to determine the effects of prison crowding and their relationship to the broader realm of crowding phenomena and theories. Although the writing of this volume was for the most part a solitary effort, the data and ideas it is based on were mostly the result of a collaborative effort with Verne Cox and Garvin McCain. Their schedules limited their ability to contribute to this volume, but they provided much constructive feedback and assistance. Cox also wrote a preliminary draft of Chapter 3, and both McCain and Cox made major contributions to Chapter S and assisted with several other chapters. I am greatly indebted to these two fine scholars for their efforts and support over the course of our joint research endeavors. In recognition of this fact, the pronoun "we" is used throughout this volume. This research would not have been possible without the cooperation and support of thousands of inmates and hundreds of prison officials. The un conditional support throughout the project from Director Norman Carlson and former regional research director Jerome Mabli, both of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, is also greatly appreciated. Thanks are due to the National Institute of Justice for financial support during various phases of this project. The support of John Spevacek of the Institute was indispens able. Funds were also provided by the Hogg Foundation, U. S. Department of Justice-Civil Rights Division, and the University of Texas at Arlington.
Table of Contents1 Introduction.- 2 Effects of Crowding in General.- Crowding Studies with Animals.- Correlational Studies with Humans.- Experimental Studies with Humans.- Field Studies.- 3 Prison Crowding Research.- Archival Studies of Overall Prison Crowding.- Direct Assessments of Inmates in Different Types of Housing.- Effects of Changes in Housing.- Summary and Evaluation.- 4 Prison Housing.- Early Studies.- Research Procedures.- TexarkanaSingles, Doubles, and Dorms.- El RenoSingles, Doubles, and Cubicles.- DanburySingles, Cubicles, and Dorms.- AtlantaMultiple-Occupant Cells.- Overall Analyses of Housing Type.- Time in Housing.- Jail Studies.- Summary.- 5 Crowding and Health.- Illness.- Urine Chemistry Correlates of Stress and Housing.- Archival Data on Health and Maladaptive Behavior.- Changes in Population.- Summary.- 6 Background and Experiential Factors.- Background Factors.- Criminal History.- Length of Confinement.- Summary.- Tolerance for Prison Crowding.- Conclusions.- 7 Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences.- Gender Effects.- Racial Effects.- Ethnic Differences.- Summary.- 8 Theoretical Implications.- Theoretical Analyses of Crowding.- Evidential Support for the Social Interaction-Demand Model.- The Special Case of Violence.- Divergent Views.- 9 Practical Implications and Future Directions.- Major Findings.- Practical Implications.- Future Directions.- References.- Author Index.