Prisons Today And Tomorrow / Edition 2

Prisons Today And Tomorrow / Edition 2

by Joycelyn M. Pollock
ISBN-10:
0763729043
ISBN-13:
9780763729042
Pub. Date:
11/15/2005
Publisher:
Jones & Bartlett Learning

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Overview

Prisons Today And Tomorrow / Edition 2

Prisons: Today and Tomorrow, Second Edition uses current case studies and research to present balanced and comprehensive coverage of prisons and prisoners. Featuring chapters contributed by leading authorities on the modern prison system, this text examines the many purposes of prisons-punishment, deterrence, rehabilitation, and incapacitation-and examines controversial issues such as whether imprisonment actually deters crime or merely serves as punishment.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780763729042
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
Publication date: 11/15/2005
Edition description: 2E
Pages: 316
Product dimensions: 8.20(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents


Acknowledgments     xi
Poem     xii
Preface     xiii
Contributors     xv
The Philosophy and History of Prisons     1
The Rationale for Imprisonment   Joycelyn M. Pollock     3
Philosophy of Punishment     3
Retributive Rationale     4
Utilitarian Rationale     5
Methods of Punishment     8
Philosophy of Imprisonment     8
Paradigms and Prison     9
The New Conservatism: Justice and "Just Desserts"     13
The Effect of Retributivism and a New Era     14
Restorative Justice: An Alternative Philosophy?     14
Utilitarian Caring: The Reintegrative Movement     16
Conclusions     16
Chapter Resources     18
The American Prison in Historical Perspective: Race, Gender, and Adjustment   Robert Johnson   Ania Dobrzanska   Seri Palla     22
Penitentiaries     23
The Separate System     24
The Congregate System     25
Women and Minorities in the Penitentiary     26
The Reformatory Era     27
The "Big House"     29
The Correctional Institution     33
Contemporary Prisons     35
Conclusions     37
Chapter Resources     39
Sentencing Trends and Incarceration   Alida V. Merlo     43
Prison Inmates     44
Sentencing Reforms     50
The Supreme Court and the Sentencing Process     52
Chronic-Offender Legislation     53
Drug Offenders and Prison Overcrowding     55
Responding to Overcrowding     57
Strategies to Fight Overcrowding     58
Texas and California: Leaders in Incarceration     59
Front-End Strategies to Fight Overcrowding     60
Back-End Strategies to Fight Overcrowding     62
Future Directions     63
Social Costs of Prison Expansion     65
Conclusions     66
Chapter Resources     69
The Social World of the Prison     77
The Social World of the Prisoner   Chad Trulson     79
Who Is in Prison?     79
Overall Population     80
Race and Gender     80
People in Prison by Type of Crime Committed     81
Sentence Length and Time Served     83
Age and Education     84
Summary      84
The Prison As a Social Setting     84
Researching the Prisoner Subculture     86
The Process of Imprisonment     88
Degradation Ceremonies     88
Getting "Cliqued On" and "Ho Checked"     89
Deprivation, Importation, and the Development of Prisoner Subcultures     90
Prisons from the 1940s to the 1960s     93
The Inmate Code     94
Prison Slang     95
Prisoner Roles     97
Prisoner Values     98
Homosexuality and Rape     100
Adapting to Prison: Prisonization     102
Prisons from the 1960s to the 1980s     103
A Changing Free World     104
A Changing Prison World     104
Prisons from the 1980s to Today     105
Changes to the Inmate Code and Subculture     106
Prison Gangs     107
Racial Conflict in Prisons     109
The Black Market in Prisons     111
Responses to the Violent Prison Today: Containing the "Extraordinary Minority"     112
Change and Survival in the Prisoner Subculture Today     114
Avoiding the "Mix": Niches and Sanctuaries in the Prisoner Subculture     114
Conclusions      115
Chapter Resources     117
Industry, Agriculture, and Education   William Stone     124
History of Inmate Labor     124
England     125
Early America     126
The 20th Century and Prison Labor     128
State-Use Laws     128
Prison Industry Enhancement Certification     130
Prison Labor Today     131
Agriculture Programs     132
Manufacturing Programs     133
Public Works and Prison Construction     133
Prison Maintenance     134
Current Issues in Prison Labor     135
Inmate Education     141
Contemporary Vocational-Education Programs     143
Contemporary Academic-Education Programs     148
Conclusions     151
Chapter Resources     153
Classification and Rehabilitation   David Spencer   Joycelyn M. Pollock     158
The Development of Rehabilitation     158
The Medical Model     159
The Decline of the Rehabilitative Ideal     160
Classification of Inmates     161
Classification for Management     161
Classification for Treatment      163
Prison Programming     165
Inmate Activities     165
Treatment Programs     168
Bringing About Change     170
Individual and Group Therapy     172
Therapeutic Communities     172
Psychological and Psychiatric Programs     173
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Treatment     181
Evaluation Studies     183
What Does Work?     185
What Works for Women?     185
Conclusions     187
Chapter Resources     188
Prison Authority and Prisoner Rights     195
Correctional Staff and Management   Kelly Cheeseman     197
The Correctional Officer     198
Training: The Transformation from Citizen to CO     198
The Base of Correctional Officer Power     200
"The Job": Correctional Officer Duty Positions     201
The Correctional Officer Subculture     203
Minority and Female Officers     206
Stress and the Correctional Officer     209
Administrators and Managers     215
Management Functions     215
Management Styles     218
Conclusions     219
Chapter Resources      221
Prisoners' Rights   John McLaren     226
Era of the Hands-Off Doctrine     226
Mechanics of Litigation     229
Section 1983 Actions     229
Habeas Corpus     231
Criminal Remedies     231
Americans with Disabilities Act     232
Prison Litigation Reform Act     232
The Eighth Amendment: Corporal Punishment and the Use of Force     233
Other Applications of the Eighth Amendment     235
Access to the Legal System     236
Jailhouse Lawyers and Law Libraries     236
Legal Correspondence     237
First Amendment Rights     237
Press and Media Access     237
Correspondence and Censorship     238
Visitation     241
Religious Practices     242
Personal Appearance     243
Summary of First Amendment Protections     244
The Right to Privacy     244
Medical Treatment in Correctional Institutions     246
Equal Protection     249
Procedural Due Process     250
Conclusions     251
Chapter Resources     253
Convicts and the Community      259
Jails   Dennis Giever     261
History of Jails     263
The History of Jails in America     265
The 20th-Century Jail     266
Functions of Jails     268
Population Characteristics     272
Architecture     273
Jail Operations and Administration     276
Legal Issues     277
Jail Standards     279
Overcrowding     280
Special-Needs Inmates     281
Jail Socialization and Subcultures     285
A Day In the Life     287
Conclusions     288
Chapter Resources     291
Looking Toward the Future   Joycelyn M. Pollock     297
Overcrowded Prisons, Drug Laws, and Race     298
Opportunity Costs     300
Private Prisons, Private Profits     300
The Supermax Prison     302
Cross-Sex Supervision     305
A New Era of Prison History?     306
Reentry     306
Alternatives to Prison     307
Conclusions     308
Chapter Resources     310
Index     313

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