Problem Solving: Perspectives from Cognition and Neuroscience

Problem Solving: Perspectives from Cognition and Neuroscience

by S. Ian Robertson


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781138889576
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 11/17/2016
Edition description: Revised
Pages: 286
Product dimensions: 6.75(w) x 9.75(h) x (d)

About the Author

S. Ian Robertson is former head of psychology at the University of Bedfordshire, United Kingdom

Table of Contents

Part I: Introduction. INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF PROBLEM SOLVING. What is a Problem? Categorising Problems. Methods of Investigating Problem Solving. About this Book: Three Issues in Problem-solving. Summary. Part II: Problem Representation and Problem Solving Processes. CHARACTERISING PROBLEM SOLVING. The Information-processing Approach. Analysing Well-defined Problems. The Interaction of the Problem Solver and the Task Environment. Heuristic Search Strategies. Summary. PROBLEM REPRESENTATION: THE CASE OF INSIGHT. Building a Problem Representation. Re-representing Problems. Gestalt Accounts of Problem Solving. Information Processing Accounts of Insight. The Relationship Between Insight Problems and Other Problems. Influencing Problem Representations - The Effect of Instructions. Summary. Part III. Analogical Problem Solving. TRANSFER OF LEARNING. Positive and Negative Transfer. Set and Einstellung as Examples of Negative Transfer. Hypothesis Testing Theory. Transfer in Well-defined Problems. Specific Transfer. General Transfer. What Kinds of Knowledge Transfer? Summary. PROBLEM SIMILARITY. Types of Similarity. Relational Similarity. Structural Similarity. Pragmatic Constraints. The Relation Between Surface and Structural Similarity. Summary. ANALOGICAL PROBLEM SOLVING. The Importance of Analogising. Studies of Analogical Problem Solving. Accessing a Source to Solve a Target. Generating Your Own Analogies. Expository Analogies. 'Aesthetic Analogies'. Summary. TEXTBOOK PROBLEM SOLVING. Difficulties Facing Textbook Writers. The Role of Examples in Textbooks. The Processes Involved in Textboook Problem Solving. Laboratory Studies of Within-domain and Textbook Problem Solving.Understanding Problems Revisited. The Role of Diagrams and Pictures in Aiding Understanding. Providing a Schema in Texts. Summary. Part IV: Learning and the Development of Expertise. EXPERTISE AND HOW TO ACQUIRE IT. Induction. Schema Induction. Schema-based Knowledge. AI Models of Problem Solving and Learning. Skill Learning in ACT-R. The Power Law of Learning. Criticisms of Production System Models. Neurological Evidence for the Development of Procedural Knowledge. Summary.EXPERTS, NOVICES AND COMPLEX PROBLEM SOLVING. What Distinguishes Experts and Novices. Are Experts Smarter? Are There Differences in Abilities? Skill Development. Knowledge Organisation. Cognitive Processes. Writing Expertise - A Case Study. Summary. CONCLUSIONS. Problems, Problems. Problem Representation. Transfer. Learning. Answers to Questions. Glossary. References. Name Index. Subject Index.

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