Advanced materials and composites, including piezoelectrics, nanomaterials, nanostructures, functional materials, polymeric composites and so on, are very important for modern sciences, technologies and techniques. This book presents processing techniques, physics, mechanics, chemistry and applications of advanced materials. It covers broad classes of modern materials, structures and composites with specific properties. Nanotechnology approaches, modern piezoelectric techniques, physical and mechanical studies of the structure-sensitive properties of the materials, modern methods and techniques of physical experiment, and more. This collection presents selected reports of the 2015 International Conference on “Physics, Mechanics of New Materials and Their Applications” (PHENMA 2015, May 19-22, 2015, Azov, Russia), devoted to the 100-year Anniversary of the Southern Federal University. The book is addressed to students, post-graduate students, scientists and engineers taking part in R&D of nanomaterials, piezoelectrics, magnetic and other advanced materials, as well as different devices which are based on these constituents demonstrating broad applications in different areas of science, technique and technology. This book includes new studies and results in the fields of condensed matter physics, materials science, physical and mechanical experiments, processing techniques and engineering of nanomaterials, piezoelectrics, other advanced materials and composites, and numerical methods and results. Also, different applications, developed devices and goods are critiqued and analyzed.