Processing Inaccurate Information: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives from Cognitive Science and the Educational Sciences

Processing Inaccurate Information: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives from Cognitive Science and the Educational Sciences

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Overview

Interdisciplinary approaches to identifying, understanding, and remediating people's reliance on inaccurate information that they should know to be wrong.

Our lives revolve around the acquisition of information. Sometimes the information we acquire—from other people, from books, or from the media—is wrong. Studies show that people rely on such misinformation, sometimes even when they are aware that the information is inaccurate or invalid. And yet investigations of learning and knowledge acquisition largely ignore encounters with this sort of problematic material. This volume fills the gap, offering theoretical and empirical perspectives on the processing of misinformation and its consequences.

The contributors, from cognitive science and education science, provide analyses that represent a variety of methodologies, theoretical orientations, and fields of expertise. The chapters describe the behavioral consequences of relying on misinformation and outline possible remediations; discuss the cognitive activities that underlie encounters with inaccuracies, investigating why reliance occurs so readily; present theoretical and philosophical considerations of the nature of inaccuracies; and offer formal, empirically driven frameworks that detail when and how inaccuracies will lead to comprehension difficulties.

Contributors
Peter Afflerbach, Patricia A. Alexander, Jessica J. Andrews, Peter Baggetta, Jason L. G. Braasch, Ivar Bråten, M. Anne Britt, Rainer Bromme, Luke A. Buckland, Clark A. Chinn, Byeong-Young Cho, Sidney K. D'Mello, Andrea A. diSessa, Ullrich K. H. Ecker, Arthur C. Graesser, Douglas J. Hacker, Brenda Hannon, Xiangen Hu, Maj-Britt Isberner, Koto Ishiwa, Matthew E. Jacovina, Panayiota Kendeou, Jong-Yun Kim, Stephan Lewandowsky, Elizabeth J. Marsh, Ruth Mayo, Keith K. Millis, Edward J. O'Brien, Herre van Oostendorp, José Otero, David N. Rapp, Tobias Richter, Ronald W. Rinehart, Yaacov Schul, Colleen M. Seifert, Marc Stadtler, Brent Steffens, Helge I. Strømsø, Briony Swire, Sharda Umanath

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780262027588
Publisher: MIT Press
Publication date: 08/22/2014
Series: The MIT Press
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 480
Product dimensions: 6.90(w) x 9.10(h) x 1.20(d)
Age Range: 18 Years

About the Author

David N. Rapp is Associate Professor of Cognitive Psychology at Northwestern University.

Jason L. G. Braasch is Assistant Professor of Cognitive Psychology at the University of Memphis.

David N. Rapp is Associate Professor of Cognitive Psychology at Northwestern University.

Jason L. G. Braasch is Assistant Professor of Cognitive Psychology at the University of Memphis.

Colleen M. Seifert is Associate Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Michigan.

Andrea diSessa is Chancellor's Professor in the Graduate School of Education at the University of California, Berkeley, and a member of the National Academy of Education. He is the coauthor of Turtle Geometry: The Computer as a Medium for Exploring Mathematics (MIT Press, 1981).

Table of Contents

Acknowledgments vii

Contributors ix

I Accurate and Inaccurate Knowledge Acquisition David N. Rapp Jason L. G. Braasch 1

1 Detecting and Dealing with Inaccuracies 11

2 Correcting Misinformation-A Challenge for Education and Cognitive Science Ullrich K. H. Ecker Briony Swire Stephan Lewandowsky 13

3 The Continued Influence Effect: The Persistence of Misinformation in Memory and Reasoning Following Correction Colleen M. Seifert 39

4 Failures to Detect Textual Problems during Reading Douglas J. Hacker 73

5 Research on Semantic Illusions Tells Us That There Are Multiple Sources of Misinformation Brenda Hannon 93

6 Sensitivity to Inaccurate Argumentation in Health News Articles: Potential Contributions of Readers' Topic and Epistemic Beliefs Jason L. G. Braasch Ivar Bråten M. Anne Britt Brent Steffens Helge I. Stramsø 117

7 Conversational Agents Can Help Humans Identify Flaws in the Science Reported in Digital Media Arthur C. Graesser Keith K. Millis Sidney K. D'Mello Xiangen Hu 139

II Mechanisms of Inaccurate Knowledge Acquisition 159

8 Knowledge Neglect: Failures to Notice Contradictions with Stored Knowledge Elizabeth J. Marsh Sharda Umanath 161

9 Mechanisms of Problematic Knowledge Acquisition David N. Rapp Matthew E. Jacovina Jessica J. Andrews 181

10 Discounting Information: When False Information Is Preserved and When St Is Not Yaacov Schul Ruth Mayo 203

11 The Ambivalent Effect of Focus on Updating Mental Representations Herre van Oostendorp 223

12 Comprehension and Validation: Separable Stages of Information Processing? A Case for Epistemic Monitoring in Language Comprehension Maj-Britt Isberner Tobias Richter 245

III Epistemological Groundings 277

13 An Epistemological Perspective on Misinformation Andrea A. diSessa 279

14 Percept-Concept Coupling and Human Error Patricia A. Alexander Peter Baggetta 297

15 Cognitive Processing of Conscious Ignorance José Otero Koto Ishiwa 329

IV Emerging Models and Frameworks 351

16 The Knowledge Revision Components (KReC) Framework: Processes and Mechanisms Panayiota Kendeou Edward J. O'Brien 353

17 The Content-Source Integration Model: A Taxonomic Description of How Readers Comprehend Conflicting Scientific Information Marc Stadtler Rainer Bromme 379

18 Inaccuracy and Reading in Multiple Text and Internet/Hypertext Environments Peter Afflerbach Byeong-Young Cho Jong-Yun Kim 403

19 Epistemic Cognition and Evaluating Information: Applying the AIR Model of Epistemic Cognition Clark A. Chinn Ronald W. Rinehart Luke A. Buckland 425

Index 455

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