The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait

The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait

by Morris Janowitz


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More than fifty years after its publication, The Professional Soldier remains a path breaking study of civil-military relations. In the Cold War era, Morris Janowitz was among the first to recognize that the military was a fruitful subject for social science to study. Asking who soldiers are, what they do, and what they believe, Janowitz's studies of armed forces and society have guided the work of scholars and policy makers for three generations. The Professional Soldier identifies three issues that confront civil-military relations to this day: how to judge the political consequences of military conduct, how to solve problems of international relations while using less force, and how to strengthen civilian control of the military while preserving professional military autonomy. A vital resource for students and anyone interested in understanding the past, present, and future of the armed services.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781501179327
Publisher: Free Press
Publication date: 07/18/2017
Edition description: Reissue
Pages: 528
Product dimensions: 5.50(w) x 8.40(h) x 1.50(d)

About the Author

Morris Janowitz was an American sociologist. His research focused on subjects ranging from the military and patriotism to urban studies and racial prejudice. Janowitz taught at the University of Michigan and the University of Chicago. He founded the Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society. Janowitz served in the U.S. Army during World War II, and was awarded a Purple Heart and a Bronze Star.

Table of Contents

Prologue vii

Preface lvi

I An Elite in Transition

1 Professionals in Violence 3

Skill and Performance

Five Basic Hypotheses

II Organizational Realities: Heroic and Managerial

2 Technology and Decision-Making 21

Technological Innovation

The Persistence of the "Fighter Spirit"

3 Discipline and Combat Goals 38

From Domination to Initiative

The Dilemmas of Command

4 The Military Hierarchy 54

Ascription Versus Achievement

Skill and Rank

Division of Labor

III Career Patterns: Avenues of Ascent

5 Social Origins 79


Rural Background

Social Strata


6 Career Motivations 104

The Expression of Missionary Zeal

The Growth of "Careerism"

7 Career Development 125

The Meaning of an Academy Education

Higher Military Schools

The Tactics of Promotion

8 The Elite Nucleus 150

Leadership Models

Adaptive Career Experiences

IV The Military Community: The Persistence of Manners

9 Style of Life 175

Work and Residence

Standard of Living

Family Relations

10 Etiquette and Ceremony 196

Prescribed Sociability

Social Integration

V Identity and Ideology: The Public Service Tradition

11 Military Honor Redefined 215

The Code of Honor


12 Political Beliefs 233

Conservative Identifications

The Content of Conservatism

13 The Logic of War 257

Military Means and Political Ends

The Rise of Policy

VI Political Behavior: Pragmatic versus Absolutist

14 Coalition Warfare 283

Strategic Priorities

The Emergence of Personal Alliances

15 Total versus Limited Warfare 303

Policy Alternatives

The Pattern of Decision

16 Political Warfare 322

Credibility of Intentions

Strengthening Alliance Systems

VII Political Technique: Pressure Group Tactics

17 Pressures of Civilian Control 347

Intensification of Inter-Service Rivalries

Congressional Negativism

Access to Executive Authority

18 Civilian Alliances 372

Post-Retirement Employment

Professional Associations

Partisan Politics

19 The New Public Relations 395

The Mechanics of Persuasion the Search for Ideology

VIII Epilogue: Toward the Constabulary Concept

20 The Future of the Military Profession 417

Professional Requirements

Military Intellectuals

Control of Frustration

Methodological Appendix 443

Acknowledgments 453

List of Tables 455

Index 459

Biographical Note 465

Bibliography of Publications of Inter-University Seminar on Armed Forces and Society 467

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