These Proceedings comprise the majority of the scientific contributions that were presented at the VIIth International Congress on Photosynthesis. The Congress was held August 10-15 1986 in Providence, Rhode Island, USA on the campus of Brown University, and was the first in the series to be held on the North American continent. Despite the greater average travel distances involved the Congress was attended by over 1000 active participants of whom 25% were registered students. This was gratifying and indicated that photosynthesis will be weIl served by excellent young scientists in the future. As was the case for the VIth International Congress held in Brussels, articles for these Proceedings were delivered camera ready to expedite rapid publication. In editing the volumes it was interesting to re fleet on the impact that the recent advances in structure and molecular biology had in this Congress. It is clear that cognizance of structure and molecular genetics will be even more necessary in the design of experiments and the direction of future research.
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Table of Contentsto Volume III.- 1. Proton ATP-ase.- Localization of the Nucleotide Binding Sites on Subunits of CF1 and TF1 Using the Photoreactive Nucleotide Analog 3-O-(4-benzoyl) Benzoyl ATP.- Nucleotide Binding to the Isolated Chloroplast Coupling Factor One.- Effects of Organic Solvents on the Enzyme-bound ATP Synthesis by Isolated CF1.- ATPase-catalyzed Phosphate Exchange between ATP and ADP.- On the Mechanism of Regulation of Catalytic Activity of Chloroplast Coupling Factor 1 ATPase.- Subunit-subunit-interactions in F0F1 as Revealed by Ligand Binding and Intrinsic Fluorescence.- Regulation of Chloroplast ATPase by Nucleotides, Pi and ??H+.- Effect of Preillumination of Spinach Leaves on the Coupling Efficiency of Chloroplasts.- Factors Involved in Light Activation of the Chloroplast H+-ATPase.- Participation of Three Distinct Active States of Chloroplast ATPase Complex CF0CF1 in the Activation by Light and DTT.- Thiol Modulation of the Thylakoid ATPase in the Green Alga Dunaliella.- Activation of the Maize Chloroplast Coupling Factor ATPase.- Comparison of Methods of Activation of the ATPase Activity of the Chloroplast Coupling Factor 1.- DTT Stimulation of ATP Synthesis by Chloroplast Thylakoids Correlates with Dark Decay of ATP-Pi Activity.- Characterization of the Catalytic Site on the ? subunit of the H+-ATP Synthase-ATPase Complex and Demonstration of Functional Homology of ? Subunits Isolated from Different Sources.- Proton Spin-echo Spectra of the Isolated Beta Subunit of the CF0-CF1 ATP Synthase.- Purification of the ? Subunit of the Chloroplast H+-translocating ATPase of Spinach Thylakoids.- Essential Amino Acids and Regulation of the H+-ATPases.- Inhibition of Spirulina Maxima Photophosphorylation by N-ethylmaleimide Centro de Investigacion Y Estudios Avanzados Del I.P.N..- The Rate of ATP Synthesis and ATP Hydrolysis Catalyzed by Reconstituted CF0F1 Liposomes.- Proteolipospomes from Rhodospirillum Rubrum F0F1 and Soybean Asolectin: ATP-Hydrolysis and 9-amino-acridine Fluorescence Quenching.- Partial Protein Sequence of the Subunit Delta from Spinach and Maize CF1 and Topographical Studies on the Binding Region between CF1 and CF0.- The Relationship between the Function of the Coupling Factor and its Combination with the Thylakoid.- Solubilization and Reconstitution of ATP Synthase Activity from Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Chloroplast Thylakoid Membranes.- A Comparison of Chloroplast Coupling Factor One, CF1, Using Polyclonal Chicken Antibodies.- Characterization of the MN(II) Binding Site of Chloroplast Coupling Factor One: Proton Magnetic Relaxation Field Dependence.- Kinetics of Mn2+ Binding to CF1.- 2. Electrochemical Proton Gradients and ATP Synthesis.- Generative and Dissipative Pathways of the Protonmotive Force in Phototrophic Bacteria.- Complete Tracking of Proton Flow Mediated by CF0-CF1 and by CF0.- Delta subunit of Chloroplast Coupling Factor 1 (CF1) Inhibits Proton Leakage through Coupling Factor 0 (CF0).- Flash-induced Proton Release from Spheroplasts of Rhodopseudomonas Sphaeroides.- Effects of 2-(N-heptyl)- and 2-(N-nonyl)-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide (HQNO, NQNO) on Flash-induced Proton Translocations in Thylakoids.- Pathways for Dark Proton Efflux from Thylakoids.- Binding of 2?(3?)-O-(2,4,6 Trinitrophenyl)-ADP Opens the Pathway for Protons through the Chloroplast ATPase Complex.- Protons Contained in the Thylakoid Sequestered Domains are Utilized for Energizing ATP Synthesis.- Further Evidence that KCl-thylakoid Isolation Induced a Localized Proton Gradient Energy Coupling to Become Bulk Phase Delocalized.- Delocalization of Energy Coupling in Thylakoids by Amines.- The Activation of the Reduced Chloroplast ATP-synthase by ?pH.- The Chloroplast ATP-synthase: The Rate of the Catalytic Reaction.- Coupling Mechanism between Proton Transport and ATP Synthesis in Chloroplasts.- Quantitative Relationship between 9-aminoacridine Fluorescence Quenching and Internal pH in Broken Chloroplasts.- Single and Double Inhibitor Titrations of Bacterial Photophosphorylation.- Changes in the Apparent Km for ADP by CF0-CF1 under Different Conditions of Light Intensity and Uncoupler Concentration.- The Role of Coupling Factor Activation in Regulating the Initiation of ATP Formation.- Role of the Superoxide Anion (O2-) and Hydroxyl Radical (OH·) in ATP Synthesis Obtained with Spinach Chloroplasts in Darkness.- Analysis of the Induction Phenomena in Initial PSP.- Quantum Thermodynamics Approach to Photophosphorylation, Photosynthesis and Phototrophic Growth Efficiencies.- Pyrophosphatase of Respiratory Membranes from Rhodospirillum Rubrum.- Phosphotransacetylase and Acetate Kinase from Rhodopseudomonas Palustris.- 3. Light-dark Regulation of Carbon Metabolism.- Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Flow by Light-dependent Metabolism.- Studies on Enzyme Photoactivation by the Ferrodoxin/Thioredoxin System.- Ferredoxin-thioredoxin Reductase: An Iron-sulfur Enzyme Linking Light to Enzyme Regulation in Chloroplasts.- Effect of Light on the Thiol Status of Chloroplasts.- Light and Dark Anaerobic Activation of NADP-malate Dehydrogenase in Pea Leaves an Chloroplasts.- Is there Channeling of Intermediates in the Chloroplast?.- Effect of Light Growth Conditions on ATP Sulphurylase Activity of Maize Leaves.- Sulfite Sensitivity of Light Modulation of Chloroplast Enzyme Activity is Controlled by a Cytoplasmic Gene.- 4. Metabolite Regulation of Carbon Metabolism.- Regulation of CO2 Fixation by the Ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate Carboxylase in the Chloroplast.- High Performance Liquid Chromatography of Key Sugar Phosphates Involved in Photosynthetic Carbon Reduction.- The Time Course for Deactivation and Reactivation of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase Following Changes in Co2 and O2.- A Particulate Cytoplasmic Fraction Enhancing Photosynthesis of Isolated Chloroplasts by Activation of RuBPCase.- Assimilatory Force in Relation to Photosynthetic Fluxes.- Multiple Roles of Oxygen: The Use of New Techniques in the Study of the Effects of Oxygen on Photosynthesis.- The Interaction of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate with Thylakoid and Stromal Reactions.- Chloroplast Energization during Photosynthetic Induction.- Diurnal Variations in the Capacity for Formation of Transient Peaks in the Delayed Luminescence from Scenedesmus Obtusiusculus at High and Low CO2 Conditions.- Analysis of Regulation and Limitations of Photosynthetic Carbon Metabolism.- The Role of Orthophosphate in the Regulation of Photosynthesis in vivo.- Control Function of Hexosemonophosphate Isomerase and Phosphoglucomutase in Starch Synthesis of Leaves.- The Regulation of Phosphoglycerate Kinase in the Chloroplasts and Cytoplasm of Barley Leaves.- Effects of K+ on the MgATP Stimulation of CO2 and PGA-supported O2 Evolution by intact Spinach Chloroplasts.- Glyphosate Inhibits Photosynthesis and Allocation of Carbon to Starch in Sugar Beet Leaves.- Calcium Metabolism in Chloroplasts and Protoplasts.- Calcium Fluxes across the Plasma Membrane of Pea Leaf Protoplasts.- Some Results of the Photosynthetic System of Mixotrophic Carrot Cells (Daucus Carota).- Inhibition of O2 Fixation in Spinach Chloroplasts by Phosphonates at Different Temperatures.- 5. Ribulose 1,5 Bisphosphate Carboxylase Oxygenase.- Rubisco Activase: A New Enzyme in the Regulation of Photosynthesis.- Rubisco Activase; Purification, Subunit Composition and Species Distribution.- Effects of 6-phosphogluconate and RuBP on Rubisco Activation State and Activity.- Isolation, Identification, and Synthesis of Carboxyarabinitol-1-phosphate, a Diurnal Regulator of Ribulosebisphosphate Carboxylase Activity.- Purification of an Endogenous Inhibitor of Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase.- The Structure of the Naturally Occurring Inhibitor of Rubisco that Accumulates in the Chloroplast in the Dark is 2?-carboxyarabinitol-1-phosphate.- Effect of Light Intensity during Soybean Growth on the Activation State of RuBP Carboxylase From Leaves in the Light and Dark.- Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase: Partitioning of an Alternate Substrate.- Expression of Genes for Plant-type Rubisco in Chromatium and Escherichia Coli.- Association of RuBisCO Small Subunits with a Membrane Fraction from Chromatium Vinosum.- Inhibition of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Assembly by Antibody to a Binding Protein.- Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase Protein in Higher Plants by a New Rapid HPLC Method.- Cyclic AMP System and Phytochrome in the Regulation of the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Activity.- 6. Other Chloroplast Enzymes.- The Interaction of Ferredoxin with Chloroplast Ferredoxin-linked Enzymes.- The Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase/Binding Protein Complex: Immunological and Other Properties.- The Ferredoxin/Thioredoxin System from the Green Alga, Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii.- Thermodynamics and Kinetics of the Interactions of Thioredoxin Fb with Fructose Bisphosphatase from Spinach Chloroplast.- The Thioredoxin Binding Site of Phosphoribulokinase Overlaps the Catalytic Site.- Characterization of the Thioredoxin System in Rhodobacter Sphaeroides Y..- Activation of Chloroplast NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-P Dehydrogenase by Chaotropic Anions and Detergents.- Obligate Co-activation of NADPH-dependent Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase and Phosphoribulokinase on Dissociation of a Multimeric Enzyme Complex.- S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent Methylation of Chloroplast Proteins.- Partial Amino Acid Sequence of Spinach Chloroplast Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.- Chelates of Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate-ions Function as Substrates and Free Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate-ions as Inhibitors of Fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase form B form Synechococcus Leopoliensis.- Compartment-specific Phosphorylase Forms from Higher Plants.- The Isolation and the Immunological Properties of Chloroplast and Cytoplasmic Phosphoglycerate Kinase from Barley.- A Novel Type of Phosphofructokinase from Plants.- Studies on a Multienzyme Complex Containing RuBP Carboxylase, Phosphoribo-isomerase and Phosphoribulokinase.- Separation of Calvin Cycle Enzymes, from Spinach Chloroplasts, by Affinity Partitioning with Triazine Dye Ligands.- Isolation of Intact Chloroplasts from Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii with Beckman Centrifugal Elutriation System.- 7. Metabolism of C4 and CAM Plants.- In vitro Phosphorylation of Maize Leaf Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase.- Photosynthetic Carbon Metabolism in C4 Maize Leaves.- Enzyme Regulation in C4 Photosynthesis: Purification, Properties and Regulation of Chloroplast Inorganic Pyrophosphatase from Sorghum Vulgare.- Is there a Relation between Crassulacean Acid Metabolism and Endopolyploidy in Bryophyllum Crenatum?.- Photosynthetic Properties of the Three Major Tissue Layers of the CAM Plant, Peperomia Camptotricha.- CO2, not HCO3-, is the Inorganic Carbon Substrate of NADP Malic Enzyme from Maize and Wheat Germ.- The Ionic Strength Changes the Quaternary Structure of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase from Maize Leaves.- 8. Integration of Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism.- Integration of Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism.- CO2 Photofixation and NO2- Photoreduction in Leaf Mesophyll Cell Isolates from N2-fixing Soybean Plants Held in the Absence of NO3-.- 9. Photorespiration.- Stereospecifically-tritiated Glycerate as a Probe of Photorespiratory Metabolism.- Inhibition of Glycolate and D-lactate Metabolism in a Mutant of Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii Deficient in Mitochondrial Respiration.- Glycolate: Dichlorophenol Indophenol Reductase Activity of Glycolate Oxidase in the Presence of Oxygen: Experiments with Crude Enzyme, Purified Enzyme, and Peroxisomes from Pea Leaves.- Identification and Some Characteristics of Two NADPH-dependent Reductases Involved in Glyoxylate and Hydroxypyruvate Metabolism in Leaves.- Glyoxylate and Pyridoxal 5-phosphate Inhibition of Isolated Glycine Decarboxylase.- Regulation of Glycine Decarboxylase by Serine.- Model for the Relationship between Photosynthetic CO2 Assimilation and Glycolate Synthesis in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii.- Separation and Characterization of Several Forms of Catalase in Leaf Extracts of Nicotiana Sylvestris.- Photorespiratory Development in Wheat. I Ammonia Cycling.- Photorespiratory Development in Wheat. II Chloroplast Dicarboxylate Transport.- Tentative Identification of the Pea Chloroplast Envelope Glycolate Transporter.- Isotope Franctionation during Oxygen Production and Consumption by Plants.- Co-evolution of Rubisco and CO2 Concentrating Mechanisms.- Properties of Rubisco in Relation to the Control of Photorespiration.- Quantitative Serological Studies on RuBP Carboxylase/Oxygenase of Tobacco Mutants Exhibiting Different Photosynthetic and Photorespiratory Activities.- Photosynthetic Characteristics of Haploid Tobacco Plantlets Selected for Resistance to Oxygen Stress.- The Isolation and Characterisation of Photorespiratory Mutants of Barley and Pea.- Barley Photorespiration Mutants.- Inheritance of Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Flaveria.- Photosynthetic Characteristics of Reciprocal F1, Hybrids between C3-C4 Intermediate and C4Flaveria Species.- Evidence for Inefficient C4-cycle Function in C3-C4 Intermediate Flaveria Species: Implications for C4 Evolution.- Partitioning and Metabolism of Photorespiratory Intermediates.- Photosynthetic Gas Exchange, Photoassimilate Partitioning, and Development in Tomato under CO2 Enrichment.- Oxygen Exchanges in Marine Macroalgae.- Interreaction between Photorespiration and Photosynthesis in C3 Plants.- Measurement of Photosynthesis and Photorespiration in the Field.- Regulating Role of GA3 on Photosynthetic and Photorespiratory Carbon Metabolism in Barley Leaves.- 10. Carbon Partitioning.- The Regulation of Sucrose Synthesis in Leaves.- Limitation of Photosynthesis by Sucrose Synthesis.- Starch Synthesis and its Regulation.- Regulation of Starch Synthesis in Zea Mays Leaves.- Starch Synthesis in Isolated Codium Fragile Chloroplasts in the Presence of 10mMPi, PGA and G6P.- Relationship between Chloroplast Starch, Phosphate Content and Season in the Intertidal Algae Codium Fragile (Suringar) Hariot.- Intracellular Carbon Partitioning in Growing Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii.- Diurnal Changes in Carbon Partitioning in Leaves.- Characteristics of Soybean Cotyledon Photosynthesis.- Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate: A Regulatory Metabolite Directing Carbon Flow between Sucrose and Starch.- Carbohydrate Storage Strategy, F-2,6-P2, and CAM.- Physiological Function and Physical Characteristics of the Chloroplast Phosphate Translocator.- The Role of Essential Sulphydryl Groups in the Functioning of the Phosphate Translocator in Maize Mesophyll Chloroplasts.- Leaf Phosphate Status and Its Effects on Photosynthetic Carbon Partitioning and Export in Sugar Beet.- Thylakoid Structure and Function in Relation to Leaf Phosphate Status in Sugar Beet.- Influence of Phosphate Nutrition on the Relationships between Inorganic Phosphate, Carbohydrates and RuBP-case Activity during Wheat Flag Leaves Senescence.- 11. Herbicide Action.- Cyanobacterin and Analogs: Structure and Activity Relationships of a Natural Herbicide.- Determination of the Exchange Parameters of Herbicides on the QB-protein of Photosystem II.- Terbutryn-resistant Mutants of Rhodopseudomonas Viridis are Double-mutated.- Characterization of Three Herbicide Resistant Mutants of Rhodopseudomonas Sphaeroides 2.4.1: Structure-function Relationship.- The Production of Monospecific Antibodies to D1 and D2 Polypeptides of Photosystem II.- Comparative Studies of Electron Transport and Atrazine Binding in Thylakoids and PS II Particles from Spinach.- Isolation and Characterization of the Rapidly Turning over Protein of Photosystem II.- Interaction of the QB Protein of Various Species with Cross Linking Reagents and their Use for its Isolation.- Evidence for Multiple Roles of the 32–34 KDA Chloroplast Polypeptide of Scenedesmus Obliquus in Reactions of Photosystem II.- Posttranslational Acylation and Intra-thylakoid Translocation of Specific Chloroplast Proteins.- Effect of the Photosynthetic Herbicides DCMU and Atrazine on the Growth of Photoautotrophic and Photoheterotrophic Cell Suspension Cultures of Chenopodium Rubrum.- Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Herbicide Resistant Mutants in Cyanobacteria.- The Chloroplast-encoded Type of Herbicide Resistance is a Recessive Trait in Cyanobacteria.- Inhibitor and Quinone Binding to Chromatophores and Reaction Centers from the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodopseudomonas Sphaeroides.- Use of Barley Mutants to Probe. The Role of Photosynthetic Electron Transport in the Mode of Action of Nitrodiphenyl Ether Herbicides.- Differences in Photosynthesis between a Diuron-resistant, an Atrazine-resistant, a Bentazon-resistant and a Susceptible Biotype of the Green Alga Monoraphidium Pusillum (Printz).- Fluorescence Investigation of DCMU and S-triazine Herbicide Activity in Crop and Weed Species.- Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase from Maize: Purification, Characterization, Analysis of Inhibitors, and its Use for Biorational Design of Herbicides.- Index of names.