Progress in Ultra-Short Electromagnetic Pulse Technology

Progress in Ultra-Short Electromagnetic Pulse Technology

by Jean-Francois Eloy

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781903996003
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 12/28/2001
Pages: 288
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

About the Author

Jean-Francois Eloy is author of numerous papers and articles that have appeared in international publications and has occupied research positions at the Research Centre of Strasbourg-Cronenbourg, the French Atomic Energy Agency and the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility as well as consultant expert at MIT in the USA.

Table of Contents

Forewordxi
Acknowledgementsxv
List of symbolsxvii
List of Greek symbolsxxv
List of abbreviations and acronymsxxxi
1Introduction1
1.1Electromagnetic waves2
1.2The concept of coherence4
1.3Laser beam sources9
1.4Laser-matter interaction11
1.5Ultra-wideband ultra-short electromagnetic pulses15
1.5.1Electromagnetic missile16
1.5.2Fast-opening switch for time-gating18
1.5.3Power microwave impulse generators19
1.5.4Ultra-short X-ray pulse generation20
1.6Synchrotron Radiation sources21
1.7Applications of short electromagnetic wave interactions with matter22
1.8Space-time domain and time-frequency approaches28
2Ultra-short electromagnetic pulse generation and interaction with matter31
2.1Theoretical and analytical approach31
2.1.1Dynamic approach to ultra-short pulse effects using Fourier analysis32
2.1.1.1Electro-optical effects37
2.1.1.1.1In the microwave frequency range37
2.1.1.1.2In the infrared, visible and VUV frequency range39
2.1.1.1.3In the X-ray frequency range39
2.1.1.2Overshoot phenomena40
2.1.1.3Generating ultra-short soft X-ray pulses of high-order harmonics44
2.1.1.4Generating ultra-short pulses of soft and hard X-rays, and gamma-rays by high-power lasers45
2.1.1.5Ultra-short pulses of Synchrotron Radiation45
2.1.1.6Ultra-short pulses of Self-Amplification by Spontaneous Emission (SASE)46
2.1.2Alternative representations46
2.1.2.1Gabor time-localization47
2.1.2.2Wavelet method48
2.1.2.3Inverse symbolic method48
2.1.2.3.1Using Green's function in the case of time-space localized sources48
2.1.2.3.2Mathematical and computational methods operating purely in the time domain52
2.1.3Analytical and numerical studies of particular cases of ultra-short pulse propagation53
2.1.4Principle of optical and X-ray pulse compression54
2.1.4.1In the first step55
2.1.4.2In the second step56
2.2Trends in instrumentation for ultra-short pulse generation and signal data processing59
2.2.1In the microwave range of frequencies60
2.2.1.1Opto-electronic devices for generation of ultra-short EM pulses60
2.2.1.1.1The Endfire Tapered Slot (ETS) antennae on dielectric substrates64
2.2.1.1.2The Exponentially Tapered Coplanar Strip (ETCS) antenna65
2.2.1.1.3The Equiangular Spiral Antenna65
2.2.1.1.4Broadband Logarithmically Periodic Antenna Structures66
2.2.1.1.5T-ray thin film emitter67
2.2.1.2Free space measurements in the time domain using an opto-electronically pulsed antenna68
2.2.1.3Propagation of [delta]-function pulses in lossy or lossy-less dispersive media75
2.2.1.3.1Case of lossy-less dispersive media77
2.2.1.3.2Case of lossy dispersive media79
2.2.1.4Data processing of ultra-wideband signals80
2.2.2In the visible-infrared frequency ranges82
2.2.2.1Ultra-short laser pulse measurement by interferometric correlations82
2.2.2.2Ultra-short laser pulse measurement by intensity correlation84
2.2.3In the X-ray range of frequencies85
2.2.3.1Different physical processes of ultra-short X-ray pulse generation85
2.2.3.1.1Multiple harmonic generation by interaction of high-power lasers with rare gases85
2.2.3.1.2Self-Amplification of Spontaneous Emission (SASE) of radiation87
2.2.3.1.3X-ray beams generated by laser-produced Plasmas [DAU 93]90
2.2.3.2Methods of ultra-short X-ray pulse measurement: X-ray time-resolved spectroscopy91
2.3Applications93
2.3.1Diagnostics for time-resolved measurements93
2.3.1.1In the microwave and sub-millimetric range93
2.3.1.2In the visible-IR frequency range97
2.3.1.3In the X-ray field100
2.3.2New design of ultra-short X-ray pulse generator for plasma studies or other fields102
2.3.3Potential applications for dynamic studies in biology and biochemistry106
3Ultra-short laser-matter interactions109
3.1Nuclear fusion and laser-produced plasmas111
3.1.1Fusion and energy: summary of the basic relationships112
3.1.1.1Magnetic confinement fusion114
3.1.1.2Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (ICE) fusion114
3.1.1.3Laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF)115
3.1.2Features of plasma and electromagnetic radiation117
3.1.2.1Timescales and parameters117
3.1.2.2Motion of charged particles through a laser-produced plasma118
3.1.2.3Electromagnetic radiation and shock wave propagation to achieve inertial confinement by a laser120
3.1.2.4Principle of inertial confinement by a laser123
3.1.2.4.1Direct incidence on target124
3.1.2.4.2Indirect incidence on target125
3.1.3Power lasers and their interactions129
3.1.3.1Optical cavities for laser oscillators129
3.1.3.1.1In the infrared and UV wavelength domains129
3.1.3.1.2In the X-ray wavelength domain131
3.1.3.2Optical pumping132
3.1.3.3Solid state amplifier134
3.1.3.4Chain137
3.1.3.5Frequency converter137
3.1.4Target for the inertial confinement by laser plasma-produced X-rays138
3.1.5Laser chains and multi-armed laser facility140
3.1.6RX and laser-produced plasma diagnostics143
3.1.7Inertial confinement projects by national laser programmes145
3.2Ultra-short laser pulses and interactions with matter149
3.2.1Upgraded petawatt lasers: lasers of the future150
3.2.2Temporal aspect of ultra-short high-intensity laser interactions151
3.2.2.1Ultra-short laser pulse interactions152
3.2.2.2Ultra-short high-intensity laser interactions156
3.2.3Ultra-short laser-matter interaction applications in reduced energy scale161
3.2.4Advanced concepts of diagnostics for laser-produced plasma involving ultra-short X-ray pulse generators165
3.2.5Various other applications of small-scale laser-matter interactions166
3.2.6Laser-produced plasmas and SR sources167
4Temporal aspects for a Synchrotron Radiation source: interaction of ultra-short X-ray pulses with matter169
4.1Progress and trends in instrumentation and X-ray optics171
4.1.1New design of X-ray sources for the generation of ultra-short pulses171
4.1.2Possible chirp and compression of Synchrotron Radiation pulses173
4.1.3Time structure of the Synchrotron Radiation source at ESRF177
4.1.3.1Review of basic theoretical considerations concerning SR emission and propagation177
4.1.3.2Space-time dependence of both amplitude and phase of SR electric field generated by a relativistic electron beam deviated in a bending magnet dipole180
4.1.3.3Instrumentation for time-resolved spectroscopy applied to SR beam measurements183
4.1.3.4Summary of results of time-space lag measurements on the BM5 SR beamline at ESRF187
4.1.3.5Data processing method applied for time-resolved signal of SR X-rays190
4.1.3.5.1Phase lags for discrete X-ray photon energies delivered by a bending magnet at ESRF191
4.1.3.5.2Dependence of frequency-space phase lags from SR energies for different operating modes of storage ring at ESRF193
4.1.3.5.3Analytical approach to experimental results194
4.1.4New cross-correlation method for SR measurements with time-resolved spectroscopy195
4.1.4.1Principle of sampling time measurements for X-ray pulses196
4.1.4.2Optical chopper for hard X-ray beams198
4.1.4.3Proposed experimental set-up for X-ray application of cross-correlation principle200
4.1.4.4Fast detector features for X-ray pulses201
4.2X-ray temporal modulation for dynamic studies in condensed matter in biology, biochemistry and medicine202
4.2.1Instrumental aspects for Synchrotron Radiation sources205
4.2.2Expected applications: new fields of interest for SR ultra-short pulses209
4.2.2.1In crystallography210
4.2.2.2In the physics of molecules211
4.2.2.3In nuclear physics of particles211
4.2.2.4In medicine213
Conclusion217
Glossary219
References222
Index251

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