ISBN-10:
0132333058
ISBN-13:
2900132333053
Pub. Date:
07/13/2007
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Project Management Success with CMMI: Seven CMMI Process Areas / Edition 1

Project Management Success with CMMI: Seven CMMI Process Areas / Edition 1

by James Persse

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900132333053
Publisher: Prentice Hall
Publication date: 07/13/2007
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 352
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

About the Author

James Persse has 18 years of experience providing process improvement design and consulting services to both large and small technology organizations. His specialties include CMMI, ISO 9001:2000, Six Sigma, and ITIL. He holds a doctoral degree in Information Technology Management with an emphasis in process improvement.

He has worked with a diverse client base that includes T-Mobile USA, Athena Technologies, the U.S. Department of Defense, Celerity Technical Services, Pitney Bowes International, MCI, BellSouth Science and Technologies, and Palmetto GBA.

James is the author of Process Improvement Essentials: CMMI, ISO 9001, Six Sigma (O'Reilly Media, 2006); Implementing the Capability Maturity Model (John Wiley and Sons, 2001); and Bit x Bit: Topics in Technology Management (Little Hill, 2000).

He can be reached at jpersse@AltairSol.com or jrp@persse.com.

Read an Excerpt

This book is intended to help shed some practical light on how companies can use process to help promote and achieve project management success. The term project management success can, of course, mean many different things. The definition will vary from company to company, and this can be particularly true for technology companies. The nature of their work, their industrial focus, their size, the makeup of different customer bases—all of these contribute to how a project is viewed, managed, and in the end deemed successful. And so this book will begin with a look at what the domains of project management typically entail, what performance factors are typically pursued, and what measures (or perceptions) usually shape the picture of success.

But first, I offer a few quick words about the process center of this book, the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), and about the book itself.The Purpose of This Book

This book explains how the Capability Maturity Model Integration, specifically CMMI-DEV, version 1.2, can be used to foster project management success in technology development shops. More specifically, I discuss how the seven Process Areas defined for Maturity Level 2 particularly address the needs of project management in shops large and small.

This book—and I have kept its focus condensed to the realm of project management—is not intended as a full-bore explanation of all 22 Process Areas in CMMI. Nor is it positioned as a tome on process improvement or what might be called the art of project management. This book takes a practical approach to the business and operational needs of project management, illustrates these against therecommendations contained under CMMI Maturity Level 2, and then describes ways and methods of realizing these recommendations in your organization.

If you read through this book carefully, I hope that in the end you’ll be able to better appreciate four factors relevant to CMMI, process improvement, and project management:

  1. The general requirements for project management success
  2. The general scope and purpose of CMMI
  3. The structure, use, and benefits to be derived from CMMI Maturity Level 2
  4. The complementary relationship that can exist between CMMI and project management bodies of knowledge such as the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) by the Project Management Institute (PMI).
The Audience for This Book

This book has been designed for two distinct but related audiences: project managers and process managers. Both of these groups should find value in the ways that CMMI can contribute to the management of technology projects and connect with specific project management disciplines, as well as how it can support environments in which these disciplines have not yet been introduced.Project Managers

If you are a project manager, you may come to this book with a Project Management Professional (PMP) certification or you may not. You may be certified by the American Management Association (AMA). You might have no formal credentials but possess solid management and organizational skills. You might work in a formalized environment—one supported by long-standing methods and practices. Or you might operate in a more free form culture, one with a get-up-and go approach to doing business. Whatever the situation, project managers remain the driving force behind the coordinated execution of project work in any enterprise, so this book is written especially to address the issues that surround that mission.

The intention of the book is to introduce you to what might be new techniques and management strategies founded in CMMI, not as a total or complete project management solution, but rather as a foundation for growing a capable and effective project management program that can help you better achieve your tactical goals and objectives.Process Managers

This book is also intended for process managers. In the technology industries, the term process manager has been floating around more and more lately (and that’s a positive thing), but unlike project managers, process managers’ roles and requirements have yet to be solidly defined. They can vary widely from shop to shop. However, the generic function should be recognized. The process manager is the person in an organization who manages that organization’s process program and is generally responsible for the way it is implemented, measured, and maintained. And while there is a PMP designation for project managers, there is no similar designation for process managers. You might assign to the position a Six Sigma black belt, an ISO auditor, or a CMMI lead appraiser, but those are all individual designations. Whoever takes on the role takes on an important responsibility. Process managers serve at the strategic level of operations; the programs they maintain define how their organizations work. And so this book should be of interest to process managers, particularly with regard to their role in supporting project development and management activities.

The methods and process disciplines we discuss in this book, based on CMMI (and related from time to time to the PMI’s PMBOK), can be shaped and tailored to form an evolving process program, or they can be borrowed and trimmed to extend existing process programs. An appreciation for how CMMI can contribute to project management success, within a PMBOK environment or even as a PMBOK alternative, will serve process managers well.How This Book Is Organized

This book is organized into three general sections.

In the first two chapters, we look at the overall structure of CMMI, explore its focus and purpose, and discuss how one slice of the model—the view from Maturity Level 2—can be used to augment successful project management in a technology shop. We also begin to relate the seven Process Areas typically found at Level 2 to the Knowledge Areas and Process Groups of the PMI’s PMBOK.

Then, in Chapters 3 through 9, we discuss the Specific Goals and Specific Practices of the following seven Process Areas with a view toward implementation for project control:

  • Project Planning
  • Project Monitoring & Control
  • Requirements Management
  • Configuration Management
  • Supplier Agreement Management
  • Measurement & Analysis
  • Process & Product Quality Assurance

In Chapter 10, we look at the Generic Goals and Generic Practices designed to support these Level 2 Process Areas.

Finally, in Chapter 11, we discuss how to integrate the functions and operations of Maturity Level 2 into a well-founded project management program, one based on the principles of process improvement, one built to coexist within the framework of the PMBOK, or one that can be used by project managers outside of, or as an alternative to, the PMBOK.

Let’s begin with an overview of process itself and the case that can be built about the relationship between process and project management success.

Table of Contents


Preface     xv
Acknowledgments     xix
About the Author     xxi
Introduction     1
Project Management as Value Management     4
Visible Management through Process     7
Project Management Success through Process     13
The Capability Maturity Model-A Process Improvement Framework     14
CMMI Is Not a Process Program     15
A Framework of Integrated Constellations     15
Disciplines Covered by CMMI-DEV     16
CMMI-DEV for Process Improvement     17
A Commitment to Process     20
A Commitment to Time     22
CMMI-DEV Process Areas     23
Project Management Process Areas     26
Process Management Process Areas     29
Engineering Process Areas     32
Support Process Areas     35
Institutionalizing Process Areas with Generic Goals     38
Achieve Specific Goals     39
Institutionalize a Managed Process     39
Institutionalize a Defined Process     40
Institutionalize a Quantitatively Managed Process     40
Institutionalize an Optimizing Process     40
Two Ways to Implement CMMI     41
The Continuous Representation     41
The Staged Representation     45
CMMI and Project Management     49
Project Management Success with CMMI     50
The Seven Process Areas of Maturity Level 2     52
Level 2 Is the Beginning     53
A Note on CMMI and the PMI's PMBOK     54
Project Planning     57
The Purpose of Project Planning     58
Establish Realistic Estimates     59
Document a Management Approach for the Project     60
Obtain Commitment to the Approach from Relevant Parties     60
What Is a Plan?     61
Project Planning Goals and Practices     62
Establish Estimates     63
Estimate the Scope of the Project     66
Establish Estimates of Work Product and Task Attributes     67
Define Project Lifecycle     69
Determine Estimates of Effort and Cost     70
Develop a Project Plan     71
Establish the Budget and Schedule     73
Identify Project Risks     75
Plan for Data Management     77
Plan for Project Resources     78
Plan for Needed Knowledge and Skills     80
Plan Stakeholder Involvement      82
Establish the Project Plan     83
Obtain Commitment to the Plan     85
Review Plans That Affect the Project     87
Reconcile Work and Resource Levels     89
Obtain Plan Commitment     90
The Benefits of Controlled Project Planning     92
A Regimen for Realistic Planning     92
A Definition of Success     92
A Contract of Agreement and Action     93
A Common Basis for Decision Making     93
Some Example Program Components     94
A Project Planning Policy     94
A Project Plan Template     94
A Set of Estimation Guidelines     94
A Procedure to Create the Project Plan     95
A Procedure to Review and Approve the Plan     95
A Policy on Acceptable Forms of Commitment     95
Look to the Web Site for     95
Project Monitoring & Control     97
The Purpose of Project Monitoring & Control     98
Guide the Work     99
Protect the Commitments     99
Promote Communications     100
Facilitate Correction, Adjustment, and Focus     100
The Heart of the Project     101
Project Monitoring & Control Goals and Practices     102
Monitor Project Against Plan     103
Monitor Project Planning Parameters     105
Monitor Commitments     108
Monitor Project Risks     110
Monitor Data Management     111
Monitor Stakeholder Involvement     112
Conduct Progress Reviews     114
Conduct Milestone Reviews     115
Manage Corrective Action to Closure     116
Analyze Issues     118
Take Corrective Action     118
Manage Corrective Action     120
The Benefits of Project Monitoring & Control     121
A Platform for Value Management     121
A Common Language of Progress and Oversight     122
A Project Management Performance Bar     122
Consistency in PMO Operations     123
Some Example Program Components     124
Tracking Policy     124
Status Report Forms     124
Project Tracking Metrics     125
Look to the Web Site for     125
Requirements Management     127
The Purpose of Requirements Management     128
A Core Project Management Responsibility     129
Requirements-What Qualifies?      132
A Continuous Activity     133
Requirements Management Goals and Practices     134
Manage Requirements     135
Obtain an Understanding of the Requirements     137
Obtain Commitment to the Requirements     140
Manage Requirements Changes     144
Maintain Bi-directional Traceability of Requirements     148
Identify Inconsistencies between Project Work and Requirements     150
Some Other Ways to Achieve the Practices     152
The Benefits of Sound Requirements Management     153
Synchronicity     154
Enhanced Control     154
Management Visibility     155
A Standard for Fulfillment     155
Some Example Program Components     155
Requirements Management Policy     156
Requirements Document Review Procedure     156
Requirements Review Checklist     156
Requirements Document Stakeholder ID Form     157
Requirements Review and Comments Form     157
Requirements Change Request Procedure     157
Requirements Baseline Sign-Off Form     158
Look to the Web Site for     158
Configuration Management     159
The Purpose of Configuration Management     160
A Mechanism of Management     162
Configuration Management Goals and Practices     166
Establish Baselines     167
Identify Configuration Items     169
Establish a Configuration Management System     172
Create or Release Baselines     175
Track and Control Changes     177
Track Change Requests     178
Control Configuration Items     180
Establish Integrity     182
Perform Configuration Audits     182
Establish Configuration Management Records     184
The Benefits of Sound Configuration Management     186
Referential Integrity     186
Change Control     187
Statutory Compliance     187
Workflow Control     188
Some Example Program Components     188
Configuration Management Plan Template     189
Change Control Board Charter     189
Change Request Form and Procedure     190
Change Assessment Procedure     190
Change Assessment Criteria     191
Baseline Update and Release Procedure     191
Look to the Web Site for     192
Supplier Agreement Management      193
The Purpose of Supplier Agreement Management     194
Shop Smart     195
Control the Supply Chain     195
Forge Reliable Supplier Relationships     196
Protect Quality     196
Supplier Agreement Management Goals and Practices     198
Establish Supplier Agreements     199
Determine Acquisition Type     201
Select Suppliers     203
Establish Supplier Agreements     205
Satisfy Supplier Agreements     207
Execute the Supplier Agreement     208
Monitor Selected Supplier Processes     209
Evaluate Selected Supplier Work Products     212
Accept the Acquired Product     214
Transition Products     215
The Benefits of Supplier Agreement Management     217
Consistent Management of the Supply Chain     217
Heightened Purchasing Efficiencies     218
Mutually Beneficial Supplier Relationships     218
Visible Performance and Quality Control     219
Some Example Program Components     219
Supplier Agreement Management Policy     220
Acquisition-Specific Supplier Agreements     220
Corrective Action Procedure      220
Product Acceptance Procedure     221
Look to the Web Site for     221
Measurement & Analysis     223
The Purpose of Measurement & Analysis     224
Establish Success Criteria Up Front     226
Bound the Focus of Project Management     226
Provide Empirical and Consistent Progress Markers     227
Establish a Basis for Improvement     227
Measurement & Analysis Goals and Practices     228
Align Measurement & Analysis Activities     229
Establish Measurement Objectives     231
Specify Measures     233
Specify Data Collection and Storage Procedures     234
Specify Analysis Procedures     236
Provide Measurement Results     237
Collect Measurement Data     237
Analyze Measurement Data     238
Store Data and Results     238
Communicate Results     239
The Benefits of Measurement & Analysis     239
A Tool for Ongoing Project Control     240
A Standard for Reporting Project Performance     241
A Foundation for Understanding Organizational Performance     241
Some Example Program Components     242
MA Plan Template      242
MA Business Objectives     243
MA Collection and Analysis Procedure     243
MA Reporting Procedure     244
MA Repository     244
Look to the Web Site for     245
Process & Product Quality Assurance     247
The Purpose of Process & Product Quality Assurance     248
Support Established Workflows     250
Promote Organizational Consistency     251
Provide Online Coaching and Mentoring     251
Provide a Window on Improvement     252
Process & Product Quality Assurance Goals and Practices     253
Objectively Evaluate Processes and Work Products     254
Objectively Evaluate Processes and SP 1.2: Objectively Evaluate Work Products and Services     256
Some PPQA Tips     259
Provide Objective Insight     261
Communicate and Ensure Resolution of Noncompliance Issues     262
Establish Records     265
Some Other Ways to Achieve the Practices     268
The Benefits of Process & Product Quality Assurance     270
Support for Project Management Goals     271
Insight into Project and Organizational Movement     271
An Open Window on Improvement     272
A Source for Value Management     272
Some Example Program Components     273
PPQA Policy     273
PPQA Plan Template     274
PPQA Audit Procedure     274
PPQA Audit Notification     274
Audit Form and Checklist     275
Audit Results Report Form     275
Look to the Web Site for     275
Supporting Success with the Generic Goals     277
The Purpose of CMMI's Generic Goals     278
Maturity Level 2-A Recap     280
The Concept of Institutionalization     281
Maturity Level 2 Generic Goals and Practices     281
Achieve Specific Goals     283
Perform Specific Practices     283
Institutionalize a Managed Process     284
Establish an Organizational Policy     284
Plan the Process     284
Provide Resources     285
Assign Responsibility     285
Train People     286
Manage Configurations     287
Identify and Involve Relevant Stakeholders     287
Monitor and Control the Process     288
Objectively Evaluate Adherence     289
Review Status with Higher Level Management     289
The Benefits of the Generic Goals     290
Project Planning Consistency     291
Project Management Consistency     291
Standardized Expectations     292
An Integrated Approach to Project Management Success     293
Project Management Disciplines     294
CMMI without PMP (or CPM or MPM)     295
CMMI Maturity Level 2 and the PMBOK     297
Process Groups     298
Knowledge Areas     300
Conclusion     303
Understanding     304
Control     304
Flexibility     305
Communication     305
Index     307

Preface

This book is intended to help shed some practical light on how companies can use process to help promote and achieve project management success. The term project management success can, of course, mean many different things. The definition will vary from company to company, and this can be particularly true for technology companies. The nature of their work, their industrial focus, their size, the makeup of different customer bases—all of these contribute to how a project is viewed, managed, and in the end deemed successful. And so this book will begin with a look at what the domains of project management typically entail, what performance factors are typically pursued, and what measures (or perceptions) usually shape the picture of success.

But first, I offer a few quick words about the process center of this book, the Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI), and about the book itself.

The Purpose of This Book

This book explains how the Capability Maturity Model Integration, specifically CMMI-DEV, version 1.2, can be used to foster project management success in technology development shops. More specifically, I discuss how the seven Process Areas defined for Maturity Level 2 particularly address the needs of project management in shops large and small.

This book—and I have kept its focus condensed to the realm of project management—is not intended as a full-bore explanation of all 22 Process Areas in CMMI. Nor is it positioned as a tome on process improvement or what might be called the art of project management. This book takes a practical approach to the business and operational needs of project management, illustrates these against the recommendations contained under CMMI Maturity Level 2, and then describes ways and methods of realizing these recommendations in your organization.

If you read through this book carefully, I hope that in the end you’ll be able to better appreciate four factors relevant to CMMI, process improvement, and project management:

  1. The general requirements for project management success
  2. The general scope and purpose of CMMI
  3. The structure, use, and benefits to be derived from CMMI Maturity Level 2
  4. The complementary relationship that can exist between CMMI and project management bodies of knowledge such as the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) by the Project Management Institute (PMI).

The Audience for This Book

This book has been designed for two distinct but related audiences: project managers and process managers. Both of these groups should find value in the ways that CMMI can contribute to the management of technology projects and connect with specific project management disciplines, as well as how it can support environments in which these disciplines have not yet been introduced.

Project Managers

If you are a project manager, you may come to this book with a Project Management Professional (PMP) certification or you may not. You may be certified by the American Management Association (AMA). You might have no formal credentials but possess solid management and organizational skills. You might work in a formalized environment—one supported by long-standing methods and practices. Or you might operate in a more free form culture, one with a get-up-and go approach to doing business. Whatever the situation, project managers remain the driving force behind the coordinated execution of project work in any enterprise, so this book is written especially to address the issues that surround that mission.

The intention of the book is to introduce you to what might be new techniques and management strategies founded in CMMI, not as a total or complete project management solution, but rather as a foundation for growing a capable and effective project management program that can help you better achieve your tactical goals and objectives.

Process Managers

This book is also intended for process managers. In the technology industries, the term process manager has been floating around more and more lately (and that’s a positive thing), but unlike project managers, process managers’ roles and requirements have yet to be solidly defined. They can vary widely from shop to shop. However, the generic function should be recognized. The process manager is the person in an organization who manages that organization’s process program and is generally responsible for the way it is implemented, measured, and maintained. And while there is a PMP designation for project managers, there is no similar designation for process managers. You might assign to the position a Six Sigma black belt, an ISO auditor, or a CMMI lead appraiser, but those are all individual designations. Whoever takes on the role takes on an important responsibility. Process managers serve at the strategic level of operations; the programs they maintain define how their organizations work. And so this book should be of interest to process managers, particularly with regard to their role in supporting project development and management activities.

The methods and process disciplines we discuss in this book, based on CMMI (and related from time to time to the PMI’s PMBOK), can be shaped and tailored to form an evolving process program, or they can be borrowed and trimmed to extend existing process programs. An appreciation for how CMMI can contribute to project management success, within a PMBOK environment or even as a PMBOK alternative, will serve process managers well.

How This Book Is Organized

This book is organized into three general sections.

In the first two chapters, we look at the overall structure of CMMI, explore its focus and purpose, and discuss how one slice of the model—the view from Maturity Level 2—can be used to augment successful project management in a technology shop. We also begin to relate the seven Process Areas typically found at Level 2 to the Knowledge Areas and Process Groups of the PMI’s PMBOK.

Then, in Chapters 3 through 9, we discuss the Specific Goals and Specific Practices of the following seven Process Areas with a view toward implementation for project control:

  • Project Planning
  • Project Monitoring & Control
  • Requirements Management
  • Configuration Management
  • Supplier Agreement Management
  • Measurement & Analysis
  • Process & Product Quality Assurance

In Chapter 10, we look at the Generic Goals and Generic Practices designed to support these Level 2 Process Areas.

Finally, in Chapter 11, we discuss how to integrate the functions and operations of Maturity Level 2 into a well-founded project management program, one based on the principles of process improvement, one built to coexist within the framework of the PMBOK, or one that can be used by project managers outside of, or as an alternative to, the PMBOK.

Let’s begin with an overview of process itself and the case that can be built about the relationship between process and project management success.

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