Pronouncing English: A Stress-Based Approach

Pronouncing English: A Stress-Based Approach

by M. Stanley Whitley
Pub. Date:
Georgetown University Press


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Pronouncing English: A Stress-Based Approach

Revolutionary in its field, Pronouncing English declares that virtually all aspects of English pronunciation -- from the vowel system to the articulation of syllables, words, and sentences -- are determined by the presence or absence of stress. Drawing on current linguistic theory, it uniquely analyzes prosody first, and then discusses its effects on pronunciation -- emphasizing suprasegmental features such as meter, stress, and intonation, then the vowels and consonants themselves. Distinguished by being the first work of its kind to be based on an exhaustive statistical analysis of all the lexical entries of an entire dictionary, Pronouncing English is complemented by a list of symbols and a glossary. The accompanying CD-ROM carries data files on which the statistical observations were based, along with audio recordings of many of the volume's exercises -- more than 100 text and sound files.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2901589010023
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
Publication date: 04/28/2004
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 296
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

Table of Contents

List of Symbolsxiii
Chapter 1The Metric Foot1
1.1The notion of stress: Present stress and absent/null stress1
1.3The five major metric feet: Spondees, trochees, iambs, dactyls, and anapests5
1.4Weak stress, null stress, and vowels12
1.5The English drive toward monosyllabicity19
1.6Teaching the topics of chapter 1 to students of ESOL21
Wrap-Up Exercises24
Chapter 2Strong Stresses and Weak: How to Know Where They Go27
2.1Strong stress moves leftward, but only so far27
2.2Three main factors in strong-stress position31
2.2.1Syllable structure31
2.2.2Part of speech32
2.3Strong-stress retention on the same base vowel33
2.4Word families with shifting stress33
2.5The effect of suffixation on strong-stress position36
2.6The shiftless, stress-free life of the prefix40
2.7Applying strong-stress rules to bisyllabic words42
2.8Applying strong-stress rules to trisyllabic words44
2.9Strong-stressing words of four, five, and more syllables45
2.10Weak stress: Placing the strong, locating the weak47
2.11Weak stress on bisyllabic words47
2.11.1Bisyllabics that strong-stress the ult47
2.11.2Bisyllabics that strong-stress the pen48
2.12Weak-stressing trisyllabic words49
2.13Weak-stressing "four-plus" words50
2.13.1Ult stress patterns50
2.13.2Pen stress patterns50
2.13.3Ant(epenultimate) stress patterns51
2.13.4Pre(antepenultimate) stress patterns53
2.13.5Qui stress patterns54
2.14Vowel reduction: The price we pay for shifting stress55
2.15Teaching the topics of chapter 2 to students of ESOL57
Chapter 3Intonation--The Melodic Line61
3.1"Peak" stress for contrast and emphasis61
3.2Some analogies with music64
3.3Stressing compound words and phrases66
3.3.1Two-word compounds and phrases66
3.3.2Multiple-word compounds and phrases71
3.3.3Pitch adjustment in compounds' post-peak words73
3.4Peak stresses and info units75
3.5Melodic lines long and short, falling and rising, and so on79
3.5.1Falls and rises, statements and questions79
3.5.2Fall-rise and rise-fall82
3.5.3Some other melodies82
3.6Melodic lines and compound melodies84
3.6.2Selection questions84
3.6.4Complex sentences86
3.7Approaches to intonation88
3.8Teaching the topics of chapter 3 to students of ESOL90
Wrap-Up Exercises92
Chapter 4From Orthography to Pronunciation95
4.1Even English spelling can be reduced to rules95
4.2Consonants: The (somewhat) easy part100
4.2.1The fairly easy equivalencies: Phonemes /[characters not reproducible]104
4.2.2The tough equivalencies: Phonemes /[characters not reproducible]108
4.2.3Grapheme 'i' and the consonants that precede it111
4.2.4When is 's(s)' /s/ and when is it /z/, /[characters not reproducible]or even /[characters not reproducible]113
4.2.5Grapheme 's' and /s/, /z/, and /[characters not reproducible]114
4.2.6Grapheme 'x' and the five things it renders116
4.3Vowels: Which are easy and which are tough to spell117
4.3.1Vowels that are fairly easy to spell121
4.3.2Vowels that are tough to spell123 four tense vowels /i e o u/123 /ai/125 mid lax vowels /[characters not reproducible]nd /[characters not reproducible]125
4.3.3Vowel phonemes and graphemes: An encapsulated review126
4.4Vowel reduction redux127
4.4.1General guidelines for spelling the schwa128
4.4.2How to spell unstressed final /[characters not reproducible]128
4.4.3The three ways to spell stressed /[characters not reproducible]129
4.5Teaching the topics of chapter 4 to students of ESOL130
Wrap-Up Exercises132
Chapter 5Vowels135
5.1Vowels, broadly and narrowly135
5.2How to make vowels: Tongue and lip position136
5.3Other vowels, other languages137
5.4Stressed vowels139
5.4.1Low /a/ and /ae/140
5.4.2Mid and high vowels: Tense /i e o u/ versus lax /[characters not reproducible]141
5.4.3Full diphthongs: /ai oi au/145
5.4.4Uh, er ...: The lax vowels /[characters not reproducible]nd /[characters not reproducible]147
5.5Unstressed vowels: The schwa zone150
5.6Shifting vowels make the dialect152
5.6.1Low back problems152
5.6.2Vowel breaking153
5.6.3Diphthongs on the move154
5.6.4Smoothed diphthongs154
5.6.5Lexical incidence: "You say tomayto and I say tomahto ..."155
5.7Rules and regularities156
5.8Other analyses of English vowels159
5.9Teaching pronunciation: Vowels and consonants161
Wrap-Up Exercises164
Chapter 6Consonants169
6.1Consonants and syllable position169
6.2Types of consonants171
6.2.2Place of articulation172
6.2.3Manner of articulation175
6.2.4Secondary modifications176
6.3English consonant phonemes177
6.4Consonants that can behave like vowels178
6.4.1Liquids: ls and rs178
6.4.3Goin' s'llabic184
6.5.1Stops and VOT186
6.5.2Stops that flap189
6.6All those sibilants191
6.7Slits up front194
6.8/h/: A sound that can get lost196
6.9Glides /j/ and /w/197
6.10Syllable reprise: How to build an English word201
6.11Teaching pronunciation: Error analysis205
Wrap-Up Exercises208
Chapter 7Sounds and Forms That Change and Merge211
7.1English phonemes in (con)text211
7.2When words change their pronunciation212
7.3Changes due to word linkage213
7.4Changes due to stress215
7.4.1Speaking metrically215
7.4.2Crushed words: Weak forms and contractions217
7.5Changes due to grammar: Morphemes and allomorphs221
7.6Phonology in grammar223
7.6.1Inflectional morphology223
7.6.2A case study: English plural formation224
7.7The phoneme exchange229
7.7.1Vowel alternations230
7.7.2Consonant alternations232
7.7.3Rules, constraints, alternations: How deep does phonology go?236
7.8English spelling revisited240
7.9Teaching pronunciation: Sounds in context241
Wrap-Up Exercises244
Chapter 8Appendix251
8.1Acoustic phonetics251
8.2The International Phonetic Alphabet257
8.3PEASBA's CD: Recordings and Corpus259

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