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Property Regimes in Transition, Land Reform, Food Security and Economic Development: A Case Study in the Kyrguz Republic

Property Regimes in Transition, Land Reform, Food Security and Economic Development: A Case Study in the Kyrguz Republic

by Henri A.L. Dekker

ISBN-10: 0754636380

ISBN-13: 9780754636380

Pub. Date: 09/01/2003

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Limited

Many former communist republics strive to adopt a market economy in which the privatisation of landed property is a key element. Generally, it is expected that by doing so, economic development will take off, improving food security and decreasing rural poverty. The relationship between changing land regulations, economic development and poverty is complex and yet


Many former communist republics strive to adopt a market economy in which the privatisation of landed property is a key element. Generally, it is expected that by doing so, economic development will take off, improving food security and decreasing rural poverty. The relationship between changing land regulations, economic development and poverty is complex and yet little understood.

Many countries in transition seek to find a quick way out of economic stagnation by means of land reform. With land reform, governments in transitional economies expect to achieve economic growth and thus alleviation of rural poverty. Nowadays, there is ample research to prove that, to be effective, land policy reforms need to be complemented with institutional reforms, and rural development activities.

This book increases the awareness of links between land reform, food security and economic development. It puts forward a model for rapid assessment of project progress in which macro-economic indicators are applied in a systematic way to give insight to concepts such as land tenure security and food security and to provide warning signals for less-desired developments as a result of project implementation. Despite being the result of numerous assignments in various Central and Eastern European countries, the book focuses on one country, thus avoiding a mixture of different backgrounds and incompatible data.

About the Author:
Dr Henri A.L. Dekker is a Senior Consultant for Land Tenure and Real Property Data Management.

Product Details

Ashgate Publishing, Limited
Publication date:
International Land Management Series
Product dimensions:
6.20(w) x 8.70(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

List of Figuresxiii
List of Tablesxv
1.1Alleviation of (Rural) Poverty
1.1.1The Conventional Approach1
1.1.2Constraints for Success2
1.1.3An Idiosyncratic Approach3
1.2Land Tenure, Food Security, and Economic Development
1.2.1Different Origins5
1.2.2Ecologically Responsible Stewardship5
1.3Land Registration
1.3.1Land Registration and Land Titling as part of Land Reform6
1.3.2Land Registration; Only the Basics7
1.4Constraints for a Land Registration Project
1.4.1Legal Framework for Land Registration8
1.4.2Vague Claims and Vague Locations10
1.5Limitations of the Research in This Book
1.5.1Indicators for Monitoring Project Progress11
1.5.2Other Limitations12
1.6A Model for Assessment of Land Reform Projects
1.6.1A Field Guide13
1.6.2'Snapshots' of a Dynamic Project13
1.7Structure of the Book
1.7.1The Choice for One Case Study14
1.7.2A Book in Three Parts14
2Definitions and Terminology
2.1.1Property, Property Regime, and Property Rights17
2.1.2From Communal to Individual Property18
2.1.3Social Function of Property19
2.1.4Landed Property20
2.2.1Land and Real Property21
2.2.2Rights to Land22
2.2.3Land Tenure23
2.2.4Security of Land Tenure24
2.2.5Land Reform26
2.3.1Food Security27
2.3.2Access, Availability, and Utilization of Food29
2.3.3Food Security and Land Reform30
2.3.4Prosperity Focus and Food Security Focus in Land Reform31
2.4Non-Evolutionary Change
2.4.2Land Registration and Land Titling32
2.4.3Land Registration and Land Data33
3The Kyrgyz Republic
3.1.1Geography and Demography35
3.1.2Importance of Agriculture37
3.1.3Economic Trends39
3.1.4Food and Agricultural Production41
3.1.5Food Security in the Kyrgyz Republic42
3.1.6Food Security Policy in the Kyrgyz Republic43
3.1.7Rural Living in the Kyrgyz Republic47
3.1.8Changes in Rural Living after Independence48
3.1.9Real Property in the Kyrgyz Republic49
3.2Ownership of Rights to Land Before Independence in Kyrgyzia
3.2.1Obtaining Use Rights50
3.2.2'Inheritable' Use Rights51
3.2.3Protection and Registration of Property Rights53
3.2.4Registration of Use Rights54
3.3Land and Agrarian Reform
3.3.1The Legal Framework56
3.3.2First Phase of Land Reform (1991)58
3.3.3Second Phase of Land Reform (1992-1994)60
3.3.4Third Phase; Revitalization of Agricultural Restructuring (1994-[right angle bracket])60
3.3.5Overall Progress of the Reform63
3.4Introducing Ownership of Rights for All Land
3.4.1Amendment of The Constitution64
3.4.2The Land Registration Project65
3.4.3Some Specific Land Registration Difficulties66
4Land Reform in Countries in Transition
4.1Farming and Politics
4.1.2Politics and Agriculture70
4.1.3Centrally Planned Agricultural Production70
4.1.4Conditional Privatization71
4.1.5Land Reform and Land Tenure Security73
4.2Land Reform Expectations
4.2.1Motives for Land Reform75
4.2.2Theoretical Considerations77
4.2.3Revitalization of Land Reform79
4.2.4Expectations of Change Toward a Market Economy81
4.3Land Reform Practice
4.3.1Who gets the land?81
4.3.2Rural Land Reform Activities83
4.3.3Agricultural Labor86
4.3.4Agricultural Production87
4.3.5The Three Elements in (Agricultural) Land Reform88
4.4Land Reform in China
4.4.1From Food Production to Economic Development89
4.4.2Family Size Determines Farm Size91
4.4.3Rule of Law versus Rule of Policy91
4.4.4The Re-Adjustable Land Rights Policy92
5Building a Model
5.1Linking Land Tenure and Food Security
5.1.1The Food Security Paradigm95
5.1.2Extending the Food Security Scheme96
5.1.3The Food Security Paradigm Visualized98
5.2Institutional Change, Individual Behavior, and Economic Development
5.2.1Family Farming and Economic Development100
5.2.2Land Titling and Economic Development103
5.2.3Comparing Prosperity Paradigms107
5.2.4Opportunity Sets and Economic Development109
5.2.5Economic Development and Food Security112
5.3Combining the Prosperity and Food Security Paradigms
5.3.1One Model114
5.3.2Implications of the Combined Model116
6Institutional Change
6.1Implementation of a new Property Regime
6.1.2The Kyrgyz Constitution, the Civil Code, and the Land Code120
6.1.3Moratorium on 'Ugodia'121
6.1.4New Regulations122
6.1.5Improving Land Tenure Security123
6.2Land Reform in the Kyrgyz Republic
6.2.1Imitating the 'West'124
6.2.2What Motive?125
6.2.3Revitalization of Kyrgyz Land Reform125
6.2.4Economic Stagnation126
6.2.5Land Acquisition128
6.3Land Registration in the Kyrgyz Republic
6.3.1Land Registration and Land Reform129
6.3.2Land Market Development130
6.3.3Focus on Urban Property?130
6.3.4A More Public-Friendly System131
6.3.5Current Situation on Land Registration132
6.3.6Perspective of the New Land Registration System134
6.4Assessment of Change in the Kyrgyz Republic
6.4.1Indicators for Institutional Change136
6.4.2Assessment of Institutional Change137
7Opportunity Sets
7.1Implications of Opportunity Sets
7.1.1Why Opportunity Sets?139
7.1.2Informal Markets140
7.1.3Re-emerging Customs141
7.1.4Field Observations143
7.2Use of Opportunity Sets
7.2.1Interacting Opportunity Sets144
7.2.2Changing Opportunity Sets146
7.3Results of Change in Opportunity Sets
7.3.1Inventory of Change in Opportunity Sets147
7.3.2Assessment of Changing Opportunity Sets149
8Access to Land
8.1Issues Concerning Access to Land
8.1.1Stewardship for Resources151
8.1.2Land Titling152
8.1.3Land Registration152
8.2Assessment of Change in Access to Land
8.2.1Indicators for Change in Access to Land153
8.2.2Seizing the Opportunity155
8.2.3Land Market156
9Resource Use
9.1Land as Economic Production Factor
9.1.1Economic Motives159
9.1.2Little Support for Farmers160
9.2Assessment of Change in Resource Use
9.2.2Statistics about Change in Resource Use162
10Agricultural Production
10.1Dismantlement of Large Scale Farms
10.1.1More Private Farms than Land; A Compromise167
10.1.2Increased Agricultural Employment167
10.2Resource Conservation
10.2.1Increased Awareness170
10.2.2Governmental Action171
10.3Assessment of Change in (Agricultural) Production
10.3.2Improvement of Rural Infrastructure173
10.3.3Statistical Data174
10.3.4Effects on Rural Living176
11Assessment of Change in Income
11.1Observations and Indicators on Income
12Assessment of Economic Development
12.1The Prosperity Branch of the Model
12.1.1Indicators and Statistics181
12.1.2Poverty Alleviation183
12.1.3Economic Perspective184
13Change in Consumption and in Nutritional Status
13.1Sustainable Agricultural Production
13.1.1New Approach toward Agricultural Production185
13.1.2Environmental Issues186
13.2Assessment of Consumption and Nutritional Status
13.2.1Measuring Consumption and Nutritional Status186
13.2.2Change in Demand for Specific Food187
13.2.3Growth Rate of the Population189
13.3Food Policy in the Kyrgyz Republic
13.3.1Food Policy Strategy190
13.3.2Assessment of the Food Security Situation191
13.3.3Access, Availability, and Utilization192
14The Land and Real Estate Registration Project
14.1New Land Registration
14.1.1Contradictory Data and Poor Mapping195
14.1.2Renewal of Mapping196
14.2Implementation of New Registration
14.2.1New Offices196
14.2.2Stagnating Development198
14.2.3Not a Specific Element in the Model201
14.2.4Perspective of the New Land Registration System202
15Implications of Non-Evolutionary Land Reform
15.1A Wider Approach
15.1.1Emphasis on Equity205
15.1.2Not Only Economic Emphasis206
15.1.3Careful Implementation of Reform207
15.2The Standard Model
15.2.1Overall Picture209
15.2.2Details of the Standard Model209
15.2.3Implications of the Standard Model211
15.3Integrity of Land Related Data
15.3.1Compatibility of Land Related Data212
15.3.2A Possible Solution213
15.4Neglected Dynamics
15.4.1Visualization of Dynamics213
15.4.2Interdependency of the Two Paradigms216
15.4.3A Different Property Regime?217
16.1.1Personal Constraints221
16.1.2General Constraints221
16.2The Method
16.2.1Character of the Method222
16.2.2Effectiveness of the Method222
16.3Effect of Land Reform
16.3.1The Time Factor223
16.3.2Once Again, a More Socially Oriented Land Tenure Regime?223
Annex A241

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