Psychological Applications In Management

Psychological Applications In Management

by Tomi Lennart Wahlstrom


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Today's business environment requires more effective leadership than ever. In the constantly changing business environment, the leader has the central responsibility of keeping people motivated and productive. Many companies have been downsizing and laying off employees, and leaving behind employees with a wounded morale. To lift this morale, the leader needs to possess characteristics and qualities that cannot be learned from courses taken in business schools alone. These characteristics and qualities can only be learned from life itself in an individual journey of individuation. The leader needs to undergo an initiation process from immature psychology to mature psychology. Traditionally, this process is what makes "men out of boys" and "women out of girls." In analytical psychology this journey is called the hero's journey, which is based on the hero myth and includes several different initiations and growing steps.

This study investigates the different initiations included in the hero's journey and the importance of learning how, from them, to be a responsible, effective, charismatic, and powerful leader. The study also illustrates the archetypes, a term developed by Dr. Carl Jung (1959) to describe the original patterns that guide our behavior, involved in the hero's journey and what is required to get through the journey.

Heroism is not discussed here in the overall sense in which the public defines heroism. As such, this study does not investigate what motivates people to risk and/or sacrifice their lives by attempting to save people from crashed airplanes. Although this aspect of sacrifice is always present in heroism, this aspect is just one of the many aspects of heroism. Neither a heroic act of saving lives nor being celebrated on the covers of a national newspaper is required to be recognized as a hero. Individuals are all heroes in their own way. Some individuals manifest their heroism in very silent ways (introversion), while other individuals seem always to be in the public eye (extroversion). The essence of heroism always involves taking a journey into the unknown and bringing some sort of knowledge out of the unknown that benefits either society or an organization. The hero brings new prosperity to the organizational wasteland.

Heroism in mass media and movie entertainment is very different from heroism in the psychological sense and in the mythological sense, although there are some similar elements. The basic elements of the hero, the villain and the fair maiden, are always present in popular movies, but the steps of the hero's journey are often not involved, which leaves nothing more than a meaningless plot good only for entertainment purposes. These types of movies can steal an individual's sense of understanding of both the myth and the purpose of the hero's journey.

This study is neither discussing the heroes of our popular culture, nor is this a study of Hollywood's creations or of celebrated athletes, or even of famed political and war heroes. The focus within this study is a hero's journey in the career of a leader, and how the journey can bring the light (individuation) into the darkness of the organizational wasteland.

The legacy of Roberto Goizueta, who died in October 1997, during the writing of this dissertation, is also acknowledged. While his death in itself does not change the conclusions of this dissertation, his contribution to the Coca-Cola Company's success in traveling the hero's journey has been enormous. It remains to be seen what the future brings to this great company after losing such a charismatic and heroic leader

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781581120486
Publication date: 04/01/1999
Pages: 248
Product dimensions: 5.50(w) x 8.50(h) x 0.56(d)

Table of Contents

Chapter I.Introduction1
Statement of the Problem8
Overview of the Study10
Purpose of the Study13
Significance of the Study16
Research Questions17
Definition of Terms18
Assumptions of the Study23
Limitations of the Study24
Chapter II.Search of the Literature27
The Original Works on Heroism27
Works on the Biological Basis of Archetypes36
Works on the Psychological State of Modern Man39
Related Management Literature39
Works Related to Psychological Types43
Works on the Archetypes of the Hero Myth (Post Jungian Literature)44
The Three Stages and Three Levels of the Hero's Journey47
Pearson's 12 Heroic Archetypes49
The Ego Stage and the Preparation Level Archetypes50
The Soul Stage and the Journey Level Archetypes52
The Self Stage and the Return Level Archetypes54
Summary of Pearson's Work on Archetypes56
The Classic Hero Myth of Parzival57
Works Extending Analytical Psychology into the World of Work61
Works on The Coca-Cola Company62
Beyond the Hero's Journey68
Chapter III.Method72
Jungian Analytical Method74
The Psychological Type Theory75
The Techniques of Amplification and Association76
Jungian Case Study Method79
HMI and MBTI Testing85
The Leader and Clinician Field Experiment Design89
The Coca-Cola Company Case Study Design94
Chapter IV.Analysis102
Analysis of the Literature102
Analysis of the 12 Heroic Archetypes in the World of Work107
The Preparation108
The Journey118
The Return127
Summary of the 12 Heroic Archetypes in the World of Work138
Introduction to the HMI and the MBTI Analysis141
Analysis of the HMI Results of Leaders and Clinicians143
Analysis of the Archetypal Manifestations of Leaders and Clinicians150
Analysis of the MBTI Results of Leaders and Clinicians159
Chapter V.Case Study Investigation and Validation167
The Coca-Cola Company Case Study167
History of The Coca-Cola Company169
Introduction to The Coca-Cola Company's Heroic Journey (HMI Analysis)171
The Candler Era: Preparation - Ego172
The Woodruff Era: Journey - Soul177
The Goizueta Era: Return - Self181
The Coca-Cola Company Today183
Summary of The Coca-Cola Company's Heroic Journey (HMI Analysis)186
The Character of The Coca-Cola Company (OCI Analysis)189
Summary of The Coca-Cola Company (OCI Analysis)191
Summary of the Coca-Cola Company HMI and OCI Analysis192
Chapter VI.Conclusions and Possible Applications of Findings193
Appendix A204
Appendix B211
Appendix C215
Appendix D218
Works Cited225

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