Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment

Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment

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Taylor & Francis


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Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment

A thorough, user-friendly guide of basic knowledge and group interventions for psychological trauma from terrorist attacks and other catastrophic disasters There is relatively little literature on the psychological trauma caused by catastrophic disasters, including terrorist attacks and the impending threats of terrorism. Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment fills that gap by comprehensively discussing ways to minimize the psychological damage resulting from catastrophic disasters as well as the trauma developed from the threat of future terrorist attacks. The book provides thorough presentations of almost manualized group methods for the prevention and treatment of the acute and longer-term psychological effects for children, adolescents, and adults. Appropriate treatment immediately after a catastrophe can diminish harmful psychological effects, enhance an individual's quality of life, decrease psychosomatic illnesses and the exacerbation of chronic medical conditions, increase the effective utilization of medical facilities, and decrease medical expenses. In this book, internationally renowned authorities provide practical expert suggestions and helpful examples to illustrate the interventions and provide a quick reference for professionals facing the aftermath of prospective terrorist disasters and other catastrophic events. Psychological Effects of Catastrophic Disasters: Group Approaches to Treatment is divided into four sections. The first section provides an overview of the book; the second discusses the foundations and broad issues which potentially affect the outcome of group treatment; the third section presents group models which address the particular needs of children, adolescents, parents, emergency service personnel, and mental health practitioners; and the fourth part considers future directions of treatment. Designed to be used as a comprehensive single source for profess

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780789018410
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 02/28/2005
Series: Haworth Series in Family and Consumer Issues in Health Series
Edition description: 1ST
Pages: 970
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.20(h) x 1.70(d)

Table of Contents

About the Editors





Chapter 1. Trauma, Terror, and Fear: Mental Health Professionals Respond to the Impact of 9/11-An Overview (Terence M. Keane and Linda A. Piwowarczyk)

Conceptual Models

Levels of Intervention


On-Site Roles for Mental Health Providers

Clinician Self-Care

Chapter Content



Chapter 2. Images of Trauma: The Aftermath of Terrorism and Disasters (Henry I. Spitz and Rebecca E. Spitz)


Case Illustrations


Chapter 3. Mental Health Issues and Implications of Living Under Ongoing Terrorist Threats (Sara A. Freedman and Rivka Tuval-Mashiach)


Historical Perspective

Ongoing Terrorist Threats: What Is the Difference?

Ongoing Terrorist Threats: Current Research on the Israeli Experience

Mental Health Issues

Treatment Implications

Treatment During Ongoing Terrorist Threats


Chapter 4. Neurobiology of Trauma (Craig L. Katz and Rachel Yehuda)


Impact of the Traumatic Event on Mind and Brain

Role of the Mental Health Professional During the Recoil Phase

A Neuroendocrine Perspective on the Posttraumatic Period

A Neuroanatomical Perspective on the Posttraumatic Period


Chapter 5. Children and Families: A New Framework for Preparedness and Response to Danger, Terrorism, and Trauma (Robert S. Pynoos, Alan M. Steinberg, Merritt D. Schreiber, and Melissa J. Brymer)


The National Child Traumatic Stress Network

Selected Literature Review on Children and Terrorism

Unique Challenges Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction

TheEcology of Terrorism and Danger

The Ecology of Response

Public Mental Health Strategies

Research Issues for Children and Families in the Aftermath of Weapons of Mass Destruction

Ethical Issues in Mental Health Research After Terrorism

Chapter 6. Traumatic Reactions to Terrorism: The Individual and Collective Experience (K. Chase Stovall-McClough and Marylene Cloitre)


Trauma and Attachment Theory

The Nature and Impact of Traumatic Events

Assessment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Terrorism and Mental Health: Research Findings

Traumatic Reactions to Terrorism: Special Considerations

Conclusions and Implications for Recovery

Chapter 7. Clinical Issues in the Psychopharmacology of PTSD (Steven B. Rudin, Serena Y. Volpp, and Randall D. Marshall)


Rationale for Pharmacotherapy

Clinical Issues Related to Pharmacotherapy of PTSD

Overview of the Literature on Pharmacotherapy

Classes of Medication: Antidepressants

Classes of Medication: Sedatives/Hypnotics

Classes of Medication: Mood Stabilizers

Classes of Medication: Antipsychotics

Classes of Medication: Autonomic Nervous System Modulators

Alternative Medications


Appendix: Index of Medications

Chapter 8. Respecting Cultural, Religious, and Ethnic Differences in the Prevention and Treatment of Psychological Sequelae (Yael Danieli and Kathleen Nader)


Learning About a Culture

Identifying the Components of Culture

Cultural Issues and Reactions to Trauma and Treatment


Chapter 9. Contextual Influences on Posttraumatic Adjustment: Retraumatization and the Roles of Revictimization, Posttraumatic Adversities, and Distressing Reminders (Christopher M. Layne, Jared S. Warren, William R. Saltzman, John B. Fulton, Alan M. Steinberg, and Robert S. Pynoos)


The Need for Terminological and Conceptual Clarity

A Theoretical Framework of Posttraumatic Adjustment

Empirical Tests of the Proposed Intervening Variables

Summary and Directions for Future Research


Appendix: Glossary of Proposed Terms Relating to Posttraumatic Distress Reactivation

Chapter 10. The Syndrome of Traumatic Grief and Its Treatment (M. Katherine Shear, Allan Zuckoff, Nadine Melhem, and Bonnie J. Gorscak)


Historical Perspectives

Diagnosis of Bereavement-Related Syndromes


Clinical Features of Traumatic Grief

Traumatic Grief Treatment

Components of a Potential Group Treatment Approach of TGT

Research Evidence for Treatment of Traumatic Grief


Chapter 11. Spirituality in the Face of Terrorist Disasters (Kent D. Drescher)


Definition of Terms

Research on Spirituality and Health

Non-Mental Health Resources for Spiritual Support

Rationale for Incorporating Spiritual Themes into Group-Based Trauma Treatment

Considerations Prior to Implementing Activities

Components of Therapy

Vignettes Demonstrating Interventions at Different Stages



Chapter 12. Integrating Small-Group Process Principles into Trauma-Focused Group Psychotherapy: What Should a Group Trauma Therapist Know? (D. Rob Davies, Gary M. Burlingame, and Christopher M. Layne)


Why Should a Trauma Therapist Be Interested in Small-Group Process Principles?

What Are the "Active Ingredients" in Groups That Produce Therapeutic Change?

Group Development

Interpersonal Feedback

Integrating Small-Group Process Principles into Existing Group-Based Trauma Treatment Protocols: A Case Example

Application: Incorporating Small-Group Process Principles into TFGT

Observations and Recommendations

Directions in Future Research and Training


Chapter 13. Critical Incident Stress Management in Terrorist Events and Disasters (Jeffrey T. Mitchell and George S. Everly Jr.)


Crisis Intervention

Overview of the Four Main CISM Group Interventions

Critical Incident Stress Management

Large-Group Processes

Small-Group Processes

Follow-Up Groups

Taking Care of the Team Members

The Research

Misconceptions Regarding Crisis Intervention and CISM


Chapter 14. Group Intervention for the Prevention and Treatment of Acute Initial Stress Reactions in Civilians (Beverley Raphael and Sally Wooding)


Rationale and Objectives of the Group

Acute Initial Reaction Phase

Criteria for Selection of Members for Group Intervention or Individual Programs

Composition and Preparation for Group Interventions

Group Intervention Approaches for Acute Reactions in Civilians: The Immediate Phase and Beyond

After the Early Days and During the First Month

Potential Problems

Combined Individual and Group Treatment


Chapter 15. Present-Centered Supportive Group Therapy for Trauma Survivors (Melissa S. Wattenberg, William S. Unger, David W. Foy, and Shirley M. Glynn)


Purposes of Present-Centered Group Therapy

Group Characteristics

Challenges in PCGT

Selection Criteria

Composition of and Preparation for Entry into Group

Phases of PCGT

Clinical Interventions

Uses and Staging of PCGT



Chapter 16. Cognitive-Behavioral Groups for Traumatically Bereaved Children and Their Parents (Karen Stubenbort and Judith A. Cohen)


Evidence-Based Framework

Objective and Focus of Group

Criteria and Selection of Members

Group Composition and Preparation

Role of the Therapists

The Group

The Cognitive-Behavioral Group Model

Children's Trauma-Focused Interventions

Children's Bereavement-Focused Interventions

Parents' Trauma-Focused Interventions

Parents' Bereavement-Focused Interventions


Chapter 17. Combining Cognitive Processing Therapy with Panic Exposure and Management Techniques (Sherry A. Falsetti, Heidi S. Resnick, and Steven R. Lawyer)


Rationale and Objective of the Group

Description and Tasks to Be Accomplished

Criteria for Selection of Members

Composition and Preparation for Entry into Group

Structural Considerations of the Group

Components of Treatment

Future Treatment Directions

Chapter 18. Trauma/Grief-Focused Group Psychotherapy with Adolescents (William R. Saltzman, Christopher M. Layne, Alan M. Steinberg, and Robert S. Pynoos)

Rationale and Objective of the Group

Theoretical Model

Rationale for Group Treatment

Criteria for Selection of Members and Preparation for Entry into the Group

Group Composition

Structural Considerations for Group Treatment

Overview of Group Therapy Modules

Module I: Group Cohesion, Psychoeducation, and Basic Coping Skills

Module II: Constructing the Trauma Narrative

Module III: Coping with Traumatic Loss and Grief

Module IV: Refocusing on the Present and Looking to the Future

Combining Individual and Family Interventions with Group Treatment


Chapter 19. Trauma-Focus Group Therapy: An Evidence-Based Group Approach to Trauma with Adults (William S. Unger, Melissa S. Wattenberg, David W. Foy, and Shirley M. Glynn)


Group Goals

Leadership Issues

Criteria for Selection of Members

Composition and Preparation for Entry into Group


Beginning Phase (Sessions 1 through 3)

Middle Phase

Final Phase (Termination)

Situations That Members Experience As Difficult

Variations of the Model

Final Thoughts

Appendix I: Journal Homework Form

Appendix II: Coping Resources Self-Assessment

Appendix III: Coping with Symptoms Record

Appendix IV: Home-Based Therapy Self-Exposure

Chapter 20. Psychodynamic Group Treatment (Daniel S. Weiss)

Rationale and Objective of the Group

Core Elements of Intervention

Tasks to Be Accomplished

Phase I

Phase II

Phase III


Chapter 21. Groups for Mental Health Professionals Working with Survivors (Yael Danieli)

Training Professionals to Deal with Trauma

Event Countertransference and Training

Understanding the Process

Some Principles of Self-Healing

The "Conspiracy of Silence" Between Psychotherapists and Patients

Countertransference Themes

Comparisons Between SCS and NVH Groups

Concluding Remarks


Chapter 22. Future Directions (David W. Foy and Daryl A. Schrock)


Development of Trauma-Related Group Therapy

Group Psychological Debriefing

Review of Group Therapy for Trauma Studies

From Current Status to Future Groups for Terrorist Disaster Survivors

Strength of Evidence for Recommendations

Future Research Directions


Reference Notes Included

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