Chapter 1 Introduction and Research
Prologue: Miracle Magnets?
Introduction: The Origins of Psychology
Culture and Human Behavior: What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology
The Scientific Method
Critical Thinking: What Is Critical Thinking?
Descriptive Research Methods
Science Versus Pseudoscience: What Is a Pseudoscience?
The Experimental Method
Focus on Neuroscience: Psychological Research Using Brain Imaging
Ethics in Psychological Research
In Focus: Questions About the Use of Animals in Psychological Research
Application: Psychology in the Media: Becoming an
Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior
Prologue: Asha’s Story
Introduction: Neuroscience and Behavior
The Neuron: The Basic Unit of Communication
The Nervous System and the Endocrine System: Communication Throughout the Body
A Guided Tour of the Brain
Focus on Neuroscience: Is Runner’s High an
Science Versus Pseudoscience: Phrenology: The Bumpy Road to Scientific Progress
Focus on Neuroscience: Juggling and Brain Plasticity
In Focus: The Curious Case of Phineas Gage
Specialization in the Cerebral Hemispheres
Critical Thinking: "His" and "Her" Brains Science Versus Pseudoscience: Brain Myths
Application: Pumping Neurons: Maximizing Your Brain’s Potential
Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception
Prologue: Learning to See
Introduction: What Are Sensation and Perception?
Science Versus Pseudoscience: Subliminal
Vision: From Light to Sight
Focus on Neuroscience: Vision, Experience, and the Brain
Hearing: From Vibration to Sound
The Chemical and Body Senses: Smell, Taste, Touch, and Position
In Focus: Do Pheromones Influence Human Behavior?
Culture and Human Behavior: Ways of Seeing
Critical Thinking: ESP: Can Perception Occur Without Sensation?
The Effects of Experience on Perceptual Interpretations
Culture and Human Behavior: Culture and the Müller-Lyer Illusion: The Carpentered-World
Application: Strategies to Control Pain
Chapter 4 Consciousness and Its Variations
Prologue: Even in Good Men
Introduction: Consciousness: Experiencing the "Private I"
Biological and Environmental "Clocks" That Regulate Consciousness
In Focus: What You Really Want to Know About Sleep
Dreams and Mental Activity During Sleep
Focus on Neuroscience: The Dreaming Brain:
Turning REM On and Off
In Focus: What You Really Want to Know About Dreams
Sleep Disorders: Troubled Sleep
Critical Thinking: Could a Person Commit Murder While Asleep?
Critical Thinking: Is Hypnosis a Special State of Consciousness?
Focus on Neuroscience: The Addicted Brain:
Focus on Neuroscience: How Methamphetamines Erode the Brain
Application: "Can’t Sleep? Read THIS!"
Chapter 5 Learning
Prologue: The Killer Attic
Introduction: What Is Learning?
Classical Conditioning: Associating Stimuli
In Focus: Watson, Classical Conditioning, and Advertising
Contemporary Views of Classical Conditioning
In Focus: Evolution, Biological Preparedness and Conditioned Fears: What Gives You the Creeps?
Operant Conditioning: Associating Behaviors and Consequences
In Focus: Changing the Behavior of Others: Alternatives to Punishment
Critical Thinking: Is Human Freedom Just an Illusion?
Focus on Neuroscience: Virtual Operant Conditioning: Remote-Controlled "Ratbots"
Contemporary Views of Operant Conditioning
Observational Learning: Imitating the Actions of Others
Focus on Neuroscience: Mirror Neurons: Imitation in the Brain?
Critical Thinking: Does "Reel" Violence Cause Real Aggressive Behavior?
Application: Using Learning Principles to Improve Self-Control
Chapter 6 Memory
Prologue: The Drowning
Introduction: What Is Memory?
Culture and Human Behavior: Culture’s Effect on Earliest Memories
Retrieval: Getting Information from Long-Term Memory
Forgetting: When Retrieval Fails
In Focus: Déjà Vu: An Illusion of Memory
Imperfect Memories: Errors, Distortions, and False Memories
The Search for the Biological Basis of Memory
Critical Thinking: The Memory Wars: Recovered or False Memories?
Focus on Neuroscience: Assembling Memories: Echoes and Reflections of Perception
In Focus: H.M. and Famous People
Focus on Neuroscience: Mapping Brain Changes in Alzheimer’s Disease
Application: Superpower Memory in Minutes per Day!
Chapter 7 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
Prologue: The Movie Moment
Introduction: Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
Focus on Neuroscience: Seeing Faces and Places in the Mind’s Eye
Solving Problems and Making Decisions
Critical Thinking: The Persistence of Unwarranted Beliefs
Language and Thought
Culture and Human Behavior: The Effect of Language on Perception
In Focus: Does a High IQ Score Predict Success in Life?
The Nature of Intelligence
Critical Thinking: Neurodiversity and the Autism
Culture and Human Behavior: Stereotype Threat:
Performing When There’s a "Threat in the Air"
Application: A Workshop on Creativity
Chapter 8 Motivation and Emotion
Prologue: One Step at a Time
Introduction: Motivation and Emotion
Motivational Concepts and Theories
Biological Motivation: Hunger and Eating
Critical Thinking: Has Evolution Programmed Us to Overeat?
Focus on Neuroscience: Dopamine Receptors and Obesity
Psychological Needs as Motivators
In Focus: Detecting Lies
Focus on Neuroscience: Emotions and the Brain
Critical Thinking: Emotion in Nonhuman Animals: Laughing Rats, Silly Elephants, and Smiling Dolphins?
Theories of Emotion: Explaining Emotion
Application: Turning Your Goals into Reality
Chapter 9 Lifespan Development
Prologue: The Cheerleader and the Skydiver
Introduction: Your Life Story
Genetic Contributions to Your Life Story
Development During Infancy and Childhood
Culture and Human Behavior: Where Does the Baby Sleep?
Critical Thinking: The Effects of Child Care on Attachment and Development
Focus on Neuroscience: The Adolescent Brain:
A Work in Progress
Culture and Human Behavior: Conflict Between Adolescents and Their Parents
Late Adulthood and Aging
The Final Chapter: Dying and Death
Application: Raising Psychologically Healthy Children
Chapter 10 Gender and Sexuality
Prologue: Soaring with Angels
Introduction: Gender and Sexuality
Gender Stereotypes and Gender Roles
Critical Thinking: Are Women Really More Emotional Than Men?
Gender-Role Development: Blue Bears and Pink Bunnies
In Focus: Beyond Male and Female: Variations in Gender Identity
Culture and Human Behavior: Evolution and Mate Preference
Focus on Neuroscience: Romantic Love and the Brain
In Focus: Everything You Wanted to Know About Sexual Fantasies
Sexual Disorders and Problems
Application: Men, Women, and Conflict: Bridging the Gender Gap
Chapter 11 Personality
Prologue: The Secret Twin
Introduction: What Is Personality?
The Psychoanalytic Perspective on Personality
The Humanistic Perspective on Personality
Critical Thinking: Freud Versus Rogers on Human Nature
The Social Cognitive Perspective on Personality
Critical Thinking: Freud Versus Bandura on Human Aggression
The Trait Perspective on Personality
Focus on Neuroscience: Personality Traits and Patterns of Brain Activity
In Focus: Explaining Those Amazing Identical-Twin Similarities
Assessing Personality: Psychological Tests
Science Versus Pseudoscience: Graphology:
The "Write" Way to Assess Personality?
Application: Possible Selves: Imagine the Possibilities
Chapter 12 Social Psychology
Prologue: The "Homeless" Man
Introduction: What Is Social Psychology?
Person Perception: Forming Impressions of Other People
Focus on Neuroscience: Brain Reward When Making Eye Contact with Attractive People
Attribution: Explaining Behavior
Culture and Human Behavior: Explaining Failure and Murder: Culture and Attributional Biases
The Social Psychology of Attitudes
Conformity: Following the Crowd
Obedience: Just Following Orders
Critical Thinking: Abuse at Abu Ghraib: Why Do Ordinary People Commit Evil Acts?
Helping Behavior: Coming to the Aid of Strangers The Influence of Groups on Individual Behavior Closing Thoughts
Application: The Persuasion Game
Chapter 13 Stress, Health, and Coping
Prologue: Katie’s Story
Introduction: What Is Stress?
Culture and Human Behavior: The Stress of Adapting to a New Culture
Physical Effects of Stress: The Mind-Body Connection
Focus on Neuroscience: The Mysterious Placebo Effect
Individual Factors That Influence the Response to Stress
Critical Thinking: Do Personality Factors Cause Disease?
In Focus: Providing Effective Social Support
Coping: How People Deal with Stress In Focus: Gender Differences in Responding to Stress: "Tend and Befriend" or "Fight-or-Flight?"
Application: Minimizing the Effects of Stress
Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders
Prologue: Behind the Steel Door
Introduction: Understanding Psychological Disorders
Critical Thinking: Are People with a Mental Illness as Violent as the Media Portray Them?
Anxiety Disorders: Intense Apprehension and Worry
Mood Disorders: Emotions Gone Awry
Critical Thinking: Does Smoking Cause Depression and Other Psychological Disorders?
Personality Disorders: Maladaptive Traits
The Dissociative Disorders: Fragmentation of the Self
Schizophrenia: A Different Reality
Focus on Neuroscience: The Hallucinating Brain
Culture and Human Behavior: Travel Advisory: The Jerusalem Syndrome
Focus on Neuroscience: Schizophrenia: A Wildfire in the Brain
Application: Understanding and Helping to Prevent Suicide
Chapter 15 Therapies
Prologue: "A Clear Sense of Being Heard…"
Introduction: Psychotherapy and Biomedical Therapy
In Focus: Using Virtual Reality to Conquer Phobias
Group and Family Therapy
In Focus: Self-Help Groups: Helping Yourself by Helping Others
Evaluating the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
Science Versus Pseudoscience: EMDR: Can You Wave Your Fears Away?
Culture and Human Behavior: Cultural Values and Psychotherapy
Focus on Neuroscience: Comparing Psychotherapy and Antidepressant Medication
Application: What to Expect in Psychotherapy
Appendix A: Statistics: Understanding Statistics
Prologue: The Tables Are Turned: A Psychologist
Becomes a Research Subject
Appendix B: Industrial/Organizational Psychology
What Is Industrial/Organization Psychology?
Work Settings, Type of Training, and Employment Outlook
Box B.1: Name, Title, Generation
Box B.2: Servant Leadership: When It’s Not All About You
Workplace Trends and Issues