Pub. Date:
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Psychology: The Science of Behavior / Edition 5

Psychology: The Science of Behavior / Edition 5

by Neil H. Carlson, William Buskist


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780205193455
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date: 10/08/1996
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 683
Product dimensions: 8.76(w) x 11.12(h) x 1.23(d)

Table of Contents

1. The Science of Psychology

1. The Science of Psychology
What Is Psychology?
Explaining Behavior
The Goals of Psychological Research
Fields of Psychology
The Rise of Psychology as a Science
Philosophical Roots of Psychology
Biological Roots of Psychology
Major Trends in the Development of Psychology
Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory
Psychology in Transition
Humanistic Psychology
Reaction against Behavior: The Cognitive Revolution
The Biological Revolution

2. The Ways and Means of Psychology

The Scientific Method in Psychology
Identifying the Problem: Getting an Idea for Research
Designing an Experiment
Performing an Experiment
Performing a Correlational Study
Reporting and Generalizing Studies
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Format for Critical Thinking
Research with Human Participants
Research with Animal Participants
Biology and Culture: Cross-Cultural Research
Understanding Research Results
Descriptive Statistics: What Are the Results?
Inferential Statistics: Distinguishing Chance From Significance

3. Evolution, Heredity, and Behavior

The Development ofEvolutionary Theory
The Voyage of the Beagle
The Origin of Species
Natural Selection and Evolution
Natural Selection
Natural Selection in Human Evolution
Heredity and Genetics
Basic Principles of Genetics
The Importance of Genetic Diversity
Influences of Gender on Heredity
Mutations and Chromosomal Aberrations
Genetic Disorders
Heredity and Behavior Genetics
Studying Genetic Influences
Evaluating Scientific Issues: The Genetics of Alcoholism
Reproductive Strategies and the Biological Basis of Parenting
The Biological Basis of Altruism
Evaluation of Sociobiology
Biology and Culture: Thinking Critically about Selection

4. Biology of Behavior

The Brain and Its Components
Structure of the Nervous System
Cells of the Nervous System
The Excitable Axon: The Action Potential
Communication with Other Cells: Synapses
A Simple Neural Circuit
Drugs and Behavior
Effects of Drugs on Synaptic Transmission
Neurotransmitters, their Actions, and Drugs that Affect Them
Evaluating Scientific Issues: “Physiological” versus “Psychological” Drug Addiction
Study of the Brain
Experimental Ablation
Visualizing the Structure of the Brain
Measuring the Brain’s Activity
Stimulating the Brain’s Activity
Altering Genetics
Biology and Culture: Environmental Effects on Brain Development
Control of Behavior and the Body’s Physiological Functions
Organization of the Cerebral Cortex
Lateralization of Function
Somatosensation and Spatial Perception
Planning and Moving
Episodic and Spatial Memory: Role of the Hippocampus
Emotions: Role of the Amygdala
Control of Internal Functions and Automatic Behavior
Control of Internal Functions and Automatic Behavior
The Brain Stem
The Cerebellum
Structures within the Cerebral Hemispheres

5. Learning and Behavior

Procedures for The Study Of Basic Learning Processes
Pavlov’s Procedure
Thorndike’s Procedure
Comparison between Pavlov’s and Thorndike’s Procedures for Studying Learning
Conditions Required For Learning
Temporal Contiguity
Conditioned Reinforcement
Effects of Temporal Contiguity on Human Behavior
Drug Addiction
Behavioral Discrepancy
Biology and Culture: Learning, Superstition, and Ritualistic Behavior
The Outcomes of Learning
Conditioned Reinforcement
Neural Mechanisms of Unconditioned and Conditioned Reinforcement
Automatic Conditioned Reinforcement
Stimulus Generalization
Stimulus Discrimination
Evaluating Scientific Issues–What Is Insight?
Cellular Mechanisms Of Reinforcement
Long-Term Potentiation
Sensory Learning
Behavior in Experienced Learners
Instructional Control
Observational Learning

6. Sensation

Sensory Processing
Sensory Coding
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Subliminal Self-Help
The Eye and Its Functions
Transduction of Light by Photoreceptors
Adaptation to Light and Dark
Eye Movements
Color Vision
The Ear and Its Functions
Detecting and Localizing Sounds in the Environment
Age-Related Losses in Hearing
Biology and Culture: The Deaf Community
Receptors and the Sensory Pathway
The Five Qualities of Taste
Anatomy of the Olfactory System
The Dimensions of Odor
The Somatosenses
The Skin Senses
The Internal Senses
The Vestibular Senses

7. Perception

Brain Mechanisms of Visual Perception
The Primary Visual Cortex
The Visual Association Cortex
Effects of Brain Damage on Visual Perception
Perception of Form
Figure and Ground
Organization of Elements: Gestalt Laws of Grouping
Models of Pattern Perception
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Does the Brain Work Like a Serial Computer?
Bottom-Up andTop-Down Processing
Perception and Action: A Possible Synthesis
Perception of Space and Motion
Depth Perception
Biology and Culture: Effects of Experience on Visual Perception
Constancies of Visual Perception
Perception of Motion

8. Memory

Overview and Sensory Memory
Iconic Memory
Echoic Memory
Short-Term or Working Memory
Encoding of Information: Interaction with Long-Term Memory
Primacy and Recency Effects
The Limits of Working Memory
Varieties of Working Memory
Loss of Information from Short-Term Memory
Learning and Encoding in Long-Term Memory
The Consolidation Hypothesis
The Levels of Processing Hypothesis
Improving Long-Term Memory through Mnemonics
The Organization of Long-Term Memory
Episodic and Semantic Memory
Explicit and Implicit Memory
The Biological Basis of Long-Term Memory
Remembering and Recollecting How Long Does Memory Last?
Biology and Culture: Cultural Contexts for Remembering
Reconstruction: Remembering as a Creative Process
Remembering and Interference
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Hypnosis, Remembering, and Criminal Investigation

9. Consciousness

Consciousness as a Social Phenomenon
Can We Understand Consciousness?
The Adaptive Significance of Consciousness
Consciousness and the Ability to Communicate
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Does Conscious Thought Control Behavior?
Consciousness and Moral Reasoning
Selective Attention
Auditory Information
Visual Information
Brain Mechanisms of Selective Attention
Biology and Culture: Control of Consciousness
Consciousness and the Brain
Isolation Aphasia: A Case of Global Unawareness
Visual Agnosia: Lack of Awareness of Visual Perceptions
The Split-Brain Syndrome
Characteristics of Hypnosis
Theories of Hypnosis
The Stages of Sleep
Functions of Sleep
Brain Mechanisms of Sleep

10. Language

Speech Comprehension and Production
Speech Recognition
Understanding the Meaning of Speech
Brain Mechanisms of Speech Comprehension and Production
Scanning of Text
Phonetic and Whole-Word Recognition: Evidence from Neuropsychology
Understanding the Meanings of Words and Sentences
Language Acquisition by Children
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Is There a Language Acquisition Device?
Perception of Speech Sounds by Infants
The Pre-speech Period and the First Words
The Two-Word Stage
How Adults Talk to Children
Acquisition of Adult Rules of Grammar
Acquisition of Meaning
Biology and Culture: Communication with Other Primate Species

11. Intelligence and Thinking

Intelligence: Global or Componential?
Spearman’s g Theory
Evidence from Factor Analysis
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory
Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Biology and Culture: Definitions of Intelligence
Intelligence Testing
From Mandarins to Galton
Intelligence Tests
Reliability and Validity of Intelligence Tests
The Use and Abuse of Intelligence Tests
The Roles of Heredity and Environment
The Meaning of Heritability
Sources of Environmental and Genetic Effects during Development
Results of Heritability Studies
Evaluating Scientific Issues: The Issue of Race and Intelligence
Thinking and Problem Solving
Categorization and Generalization
Formal and Natural Concepts
Deductive Reasoning
Inductive Reasoning
Problem Solving

12. Lifespan Development

Prenatal Development
Stages of Prenatal Development
Threats to Normal Prenatal Development
Physical and Perceptual Development in Infancy and Childhood
Motor Development
Perceptual Development
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
The Importance of a Responsive Environment
The Work of Jean Piaget
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development
Developmental Models of Information Processing in Cognitive Development
Evaluating Scientific Issues: The Effects of Television Viewing on Children’s Cognitive Development
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Behaviors of the Infant That Foster Attachment
The Nature and Quality of Attachment
Interactions with Peers
Approaches to Child Rearing
Development of Gender Roles
The Nature of Gender Differences
Biology and Culture: The Causes of Gender Role Differences
Moral Development
Piaget’s Theory of Moral Development
Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development
Evaluation of Piaget’s and Kohlberg’s Theories of Moral Development
Physical Development
Social Development
Cognitive Development
Adulthood and Old Age
Physical Development
Cognitive Development
Social Development

13. Motivation and Emotion

What is Motivation?
Reinforcement and Motivation
What Initiates Behavior?
What Determines the Strength of Behavior?
What Determines the Persistence of Behavior?
Aggressive Behavior
Ethological Studies of Aggression
Hormones and Aggression
Environmental Variables that Affect Human Aggression
Sexual Behavior
Effects of Sex Hormones on Behavior
Sexual Orientation
Emotions as Response Patterns
Social Judgments: Role of the Orbitofrontal Cortex
Measuring Emotional Responses: Lie Detection in Criminal Investigation
Expression and Recognition of Emotions
The Social Nature of Emotional Expressions of Humans
Situations that Produce Emotions: The Role of Cognition
Biology and Culture: Are Emotional Expressions Innate?
Feelings of Emotion
Theories of Emotion
Effects of Spinal Cord Injury and Autonomic-System Damage
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Is Cognition Essential for Emotion?
What Starts a Meal?
What Stops a Meal?
Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa

14. Personality

Trait Theories of Personality
Personality Types and Traits
Identification of Personality Traits
Psychobiological Approaches
Heritability of Personality Traits
Brain Mechanisms in Personality
The Social Cognitive Approach
Expectancies and Observational Learning
Reciprocal Determinism and Self-Efficacy
Person Variables
Locus of Control
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Traits versus Situations as Predictors of Behavior
The Psychodynamic Approach
The Development of Freud’s Theory
Structures of the Mind: Id, Ego, and Superego
Defense Mechanisms
Freud’s Psychosexual Theory of Personality Development
Further Development of Freud’s Theory: The Neo-Freudians
Some Observations on Psychodynamic Theory and Research
The Humanistic Approach
Maslow and Self-Actualization
Rogers and Conditions of Worth
Some Observations on the Humanistic Approach
Assessment of Personality
Objective Tests of Personality
Projective Tests of Personality
Evaluation of Projective Tests
Biology and Culture: Gender Differences in Personality

15. Social Psychology

Social Cognition
Impression Formation
The Self
Attributional Biases
Attribution, Heuristics, and Social Cognition
Attitudes: Their Formation and Change
Formation of Attitudes
Attitude Change and Persuasion
Cognitive Dissonance
Stereotypes and Prejudice
The Origins of Prejudice
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies
Hope for Change
Social Influences and Group Behavior
Social Facilitation
Social Loafing
Commitment and Compliance
Obedience to Authority
Group Decision Making
Resisting Social Influences
Interpersonal Attraction and Loving
Interpersonal Attraction
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Arousal and Interpersonal Attraction
Biology and Culture: Evolution and the Likelihood of Love

16. Lifestyle, Stress, and Health

Cultural Evolution: Lifestyle Choices and Consequences
Healthy and Unhealthy Lifestyles
Physical Fitness
Cigarette Smoking
Drinking Alcoholic Beverages
Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS
Biology and Culture: Cultural Reactions to Contagious Diseases
Unhealthy Lifestyles Are Preventable: Self-Control
Stress and Health
The Biological Basis of Stress
Cognitive Appraisal and Stress
Stressful Lifestyles and Impaired Health
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Is There a Cancer-Prone Personality?
Coping with Everyday Stress
Sources of Stress
Coping Styles and Strategies
Stress Inoculation Training

17. The Nature and Causes of Mental Disorders

Classification and Diagnosis of Mental Disorders
What Is “Abnormal”?
Perspectives on the Causes of Mental Disorders
The DSM-IV-TR Classification Scheme
Some Problems with DSM-IV-TR Classification
The Need for Classification
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Clinical versus Actuarial Diagnosis
Anxiety, Somatoform, and Dissociative Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
Somatoform Disorders
Dissociative Disorders
Biology and Culture: Culture-Bound Syndromes
Personality Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Substance-Related Disorders
Possible Causes
Types of Schizophrenia
Early Signs of Schizophrenia
Possible Causes
Mood Disorders
Possible Causes

18. The Treatment of Mental Disorders

Mental Disorders and Therapy
Early Treatment of Mental Disorders
The Development of Psychotherapy
Insight Therapies
Psychoanalysis and Modern Psychodynamic Approaches
Humanistic Therapy
Evaluation of Insight Therapies
Behavior Therapies, Cognitive Therapies, and Cognitive-Behavior Therapies
Therapies Based on Classical Conditioning
Therapies Based on Operant Conditioning
Maintaining Behavioral Change
Cognitive Therapies
Cognitive-Behavior Therapies
Evaluation of Behavior Therapies, Cognitive Therapies, and Cognitive-Behavior Therapies
Group Therapies and Community Psychology
Family Therapy and Couples Therapy
Community Psychology
Evaluation of Group Therapies and Community Psychology
Biology and Culture: Cultural Belief Systems and Indigenous Healing Therapies
Biological Therapies
Drug Therapy
Electroconvulsive Therapy
Evaluation of Biological Treatments
Evaluating Scientific Issues: Assessing the Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
The Relationship between Client and Therapist

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