Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780030308239
Publisher: Cengage Learning
Publication date: 01/02/1992
Pages: 448
Product dimensions: 7.48(w) x 9.45(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

About the Authorxxi
Part 1Public Speaking and the Challenge of Communication
Chapter 1Introduction to Public Speaking3
Public Speaking in Your Life5
Public Speaking Often Begins in College6
No Matter Your Career Choice, You May Also Be a Public Speaker6
Focus on Research: Do Real People Ever Give Speeches?7
Public Speaking in Your Role as a Citizen7
Public Speaking Skills Are Important in Our High-Tech Age8
Public Speaking Teaches Critical Thinking9
Public Speaking is a Key to Leadership10
Rhetoric and Public Speaking10
Rhetoric and Communication11
Public Speaking and the Democratic Tradition12
Public Speaking in the Classroom14
The Reciprocal Nature of Public Speaking14
Element 1The Speaker16
Element 2The Message16
Element 3The Channel17
Element 4The Occasion17
Element 5The Culture18
Element 6The Audience18
Element 7The Feedback19
An Example: The Public Speaking Transaction19
Questions for Study22
The Communication Model23
Chapter 2Preparing Your First Speech27
Step 1Select a Topic You Care About29
Start with Your Own Interests29
How to Focus Your Choice29
Step 2Determine the Purposes and Core Idea of Your Speech31
General Purposes31
Specific Purpose31
Choose Your Core Idea32
Step 3Consider Yourself a Spokesperson32
Step 4Analyze and Adapt to Your Audience34
Step 5Define Your Speech's Beginning, Middle, and End35
Organizing Your First Speech37
Step 6Use Sound Reasoning and Firm Support37
Rely on Expert Testimony37
Use Statistics37
Build Your Case Through Examples37
Use Indisputable Facts38
Construct Analogies38
Step 7Choose Your Words with Care38
Step 8Consider Your Ethical Responsibilities39
Step 9Make Your Nerves Work for You40
What Is Speech Tension and Why Do Some People Suffer from It More Than Others Do?40
How to Control Your Tension41
Step 10Perfect Your Delivery43
Questions for Study44
Topics Assignment47
Chapter 3Listening to and Evaluating Speeches49
Why Good Listening Skills Are Important51
How Listening Is Defined52
Stage 1Listening Starts When You Sense the Information from Its Source53
Stage 2Listening Involves the Interpretation of Messages54
Stage 3Listening Involves Evaluating What You Hear55
Focus on Research: The Difference Between Good and Bad Listening57
Stage 4Listening Involves Responding to the Speaker's Message58
Eight Ways to Fine-Tune Your Listening Skills58
Step 1Get Ready to Listen58
Step 2Minimize Listening Barriers58
Step 3Leave Distractions Behind59
Step 4Do Not Rush to Judgment59
Step 5Listen First for Content, Second for Delivery60
Step 6Become an Effective Note Taker61
Step 7Be an Active Listener61
Step 8Provide Feedback62
Evaluating Public Speeches62
Criteria for Evaluating Public Speeches64
Learn the Art of Criticism64
Public Speaking Evaluation Form65
Questions for Study66
Listening Stages67
Listening Activity69
Chapter 4The Ethics of Responsible Speech71
What Are the Ethics of Public Speaking?74
The Communication of Values75
Focus on Research: Richard Nixon's Speech on American Involvement in the War in Vietnam and Ethical Considerations76
Ethical Guidelines for Public Speakers78
Understand the Power of the Lectern79
Speak Truthfully and Be Certain of Your Facts80
Do the Ends Justify the Means?83
Avoid Excessive and Inappropriate Emotional Appeals84
Speak Easy: Give Credit Where Credit Is Due87
Use Credible Sources88
Never Try to Be Purposefully Ambiguous88
Choose Current Sources89
Use These Guidelines to Engage in a Dialogue with Your Audience90
The Link Between Free Speech and Ethical Speech90
Questions for Study92
Ethics of Responsible Speech95
Chapter 5Adjusting to Your Audience--Making the Connection97
Who Are My Listeners?99
What Are the Ages of My Listeners?100
Do I Deliver a Different Speech to Men than Women?101
How Much Do My Listeners Know about My Topic?103
To Which Groups Do My Listeners Belong?103
Should I Consider Life-Style Choices?106
Why Is My Audience an Audience?107
Define the Occasion108
Define Audience Interest in Your Speech Topic109
Determine How Much Your Audience Knows about You109
How to Find Out What Your Audience Is Thinking Before You Speak110
Analyze Your Audience with a Questionnaire110
Fixed-Alternative Questions111
Observe and Interview113
How to Make the Speaker-Audience Connection113
Get to the Point Quickly113
Have Confidence Your Audience Wants to Hear Your Speech113
Be of the People, Not Above the People114
Make Personal Connections with Your Listeners114
Speak Easy: Physical Surroundings and Audience Response115
Make Your Speech a Participatory Event116
Find Out What Your Audience Thought After Your Speech117
Focus on Research: Adapting to Your Audience: Can You Go Too Far?118
Questions for Study119
Audience Analysis Assignment121
Response Sheet123
Electronic Audience Analysis125
Part 2Preparing and Presenting Your Speech
Chapter 6Researching Your Speech129
Begin with Your Own Knowledge and Skill131
Conducting Personal Interviews132
Finding the Right Interview Subject132
Asking for an Interview133
Preparing for an Interview134
During the Interview134
At the Close of the Interview135
After the Interview135
The Library Research Strategy136
Library Research Today136
The Library Catalog136
Periodical Indexes137
Electronic Databases137
Print Indexes137
The Internet138
Evluating Information from the Wold Wide Web139
Change is Constant139
Step 1Consult Encyclopedias139
Step 2When Needed, Use a Dictionary140
Step 3Develop Questions by Reconsidering Your Audience141
Step 4Use Newspapers, Magazines, and Journals142
Step 5Consult the Library Catalog143
Step 6Consult Individual Works in Collections144
Step 7Consult Biographical Sources144
Step 8Evaluate Your Sources with Book and Journal Reviews146
Step 9Consider Statistical Sources147
Step 10Consider Government Documents148
When You Need Help, Ask the Librarian148
Speak Easy: The Key to Research: Taking Good Notes149
Questions for Study151
Library Search Strategy153
Use the Internet157
Chapter 7Supporting Your Speech161
Support Strengthens Your Speech162
Forms of Support163
Focus on Research: Does Evidence Really Convince?164
Guidelines for Using Facts167
Testimony and Quotations176
Questions for Study181
Supporting Your Speech--Assignment 1183
Supporting Your Speech--Part A & B185
Chapter 8Organizing and Outlining Your Ideas187
Organize Your Speech to Help Your Audience188
Focus on Research--Does a Well-Organized Speech Aid Learning?189
Step 1Select Your Main Points190
Start with Your Specific Purpose and Core Idea190
Generate and Cluster Ideas191
Step 2Support Your Main Points192
Step 3Choose the Best Pattern for Organizing Your Main Points193
Arrange Your Ideas in Chronological Order193
Use a Spatial Organizational Pattern195
Follow a Pattern of Cause and Effect196
Examine a Problem and Its Solution197
Arrange Your Ideas in a Topical Pattern198
Step 4Create Unity Through Connections199
Internal Previews200
Internal Summaries200
The Planning Outline201
Sample Planning Outline and Analysis202
Speakers' Notes206
Sample Speakers' Notes and Analysis207
Questions for Study209
Organizing and Outlining211
Speech Development through Brain Diagramming: Making the Clover215
Brain Diagramming217
Chapter 9Introducing and Concluding Your Speech219
Introducing Your Speech220
What Your Introduction Should Accomplish220
Make a Startling Statement222
Use a Dramatic Story222
Engage Your Audience with a Quotation223
Put Your Audience at Ease with Humor224
Use Rhetorical Questions224
How to Preview Your Main Points225
How to Introduce the Same Speech in Different Ways225
An Analysis of the Introduction to a Presidential Speech226
Concluding Your Speech227
What Your Conclusion Should Accomplish228
Call to Action230
Use a Dramatic Illustration230
Close with a Quotation231
Conclude with a Metaphor That Broadens the Meaning of Your Speech232
Conclude with Humor232
Encourage Thought with a Rhetorical Question233
Refer to Your Introduction233
Make Your Last Words Your Most Memorable233
How to Conclude the Same Speech in Different Ways234
Speak Easy: Beginnings and Endings That Do Not Work235
Questions for Study236
Introducing and Concluding Your Speech--Assignment A--Introductions237
Introducing and Concluding Your Speech--Assignment B--Conclusions239
Chapter 10Language, Style, and Humor241
Spoken Language and Written Language Are Different242
Spoken Language Is Expanded Language242
Spoken Language Affects the Order of Ideas243
Spoken Language Demands Attention to Rhythm243
Spoken Language Requires Signals246
Simplicity and Precision Have No Substitute246
Never Use a Long Word When a Short One Will Do246
Avoid Language that Masks Meaning247
Use Jargon Onl

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