Punishment is a harm or deprivation, imposed by a legitimate authority, based on a legitimate conviction of wrongdoing. In assessing guilt, considerations of intention, action and results are all relevant.
Any understanding of punishment depends heavily on our interpretation of both authority and responsibility. Paternalism is one set of beliefs about who should have authority; it obviously has been applied within the family, and it has a highly controversial application in government. The authority of law and the state is a topic of philosophical interest extending at least back to Socrates.
The way one understands the role and power of the state in turn depends on assumptions about human nature.