Pyrrhonian Reflections on Knowledge and Justification

Pyrrhonian Reflections on Knowledge and Justification

by Robert J. Fogelin

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780195089875
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Publication date: 09/22/1994
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 256
Product dimensions: 6.31(w) x 9.56(h) x 0.97(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction: Philosophical Skepticism and Pyrrhonism3
Part IGettier and the Problem of Knowledge
Chapter 1.Gettier Problems15
Gettier's Formulation15
Gettier's Reasons for Accepting His First Point16
Gettier's Understanding of Justification17
A Second Interpretation of Justification18
The Gettier Problems and Nonmonotonicity21
Variations on the Gettier Problems23
Epistemic Responsibility26
Conclusion28
Chapter 2.Fourth-Clause Theories31
Analyses of Knowledge31
Indefeasibility Theories33
Chapter 3.Externalism41
The Attraction of Externalism42
BonJour against the Reliabilists43
Externalist Grounds46
Goldman and Causal Theories of Knowing49
The Move to the Subjunctive54
Chapter 4.Subjunctivism and Subjunctivitis61
Conclusive Reasons61
Subjunctivism66
Subjunctivitis70
Subjunctive Conditionals and Possible Worlds72
Nozick against the "Skeptics,"75
The Failure of Epistemic Closure79
Nozick against the Skeptics81
Dretske against Epistemic Closure82
Chapter 5.Epistemic Grace88
Justificatory Procedures89
Doubts90
Levels of Scrutiny93
Is There a Fact of the Matter in Knowing?95
It's Hard to Say98
Summary of Part I99
Appendix A.The Lottery Paradox and the Preface Paradox102
The Lottery Paradox102
The Preface Paradox105
The Conjunction Principle for Knowledge108
Part IIAgrippa and the Problem of Justification
Chapter 6.Agrippa and the Problem of Epistemic Justification113
The Problem114
Success Conditions on Theories of Justification117
Theories of Epistemic Justification119
Chapter 7.Foundationalism123
Forms of Foundationalism123
Chisholm's Version of Foundationalism124
Levels of Justification125
Certainty and the Self-Presenting129
Presumptions132
The Transfer of Justification134
Material Epistemic Principles135
Summary and Evaluation138
Chapter 8.Internal Coherentism146
BonJour's Version of Coherentism147
Standards of Coherence148
Immediate Problems149
The Doxastic Presumption152
Standard Objections to Coherentism154
Coherence and Observation155
The Multiple-Choice Problem158
Justification and Truth159
An Assessment162
Lehrer and the Isolation Objection162
Chapter 9.External Coherentism170
Davidson's Version of Coherentism171
The Nature of Coherence172
Truth173
The Skeptical Challenge174
Sensation and Belief175
Meaning and Justification176
The Fundamental Argument176
The Golden Triangle182
Davidson's Externalist Semantics183
The Problem of Error184
The Cartesian Skeptic's Reply186
The Pyrrhonian Skeptic's Reply188
Chapter 10.Pyrrhonism192
Neo-Pyrrhonism192
Again, Is There a Fact of the Matter in Knowing?193
The Pyrrhonist's Use of Epistemic Terms195
Is Skepticism Statable?196
A Temporary Stopping Point202
Appendix B.Two Wittgensteins205
Turning Things Around206
Holism208
Publicity211
Action215
References223
Index231

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