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Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences / Edition 8

Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences / Edition 8

by Bruce L. Berg


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900205809386
Publisher: Pearson
Publication date: 11/29/2011
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 448
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Bruce L. Berg received his PhD from Syracuse University in 1983. His first faculty position as Assistant Professor was at Florida State University, where he also served as Internship Director. In 1986, he took a position at University of Massachusetts-Boston Harbor campus. Then from 1988 to 1996, he moved up the academic ladder at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, achieving tenure and full professor status. He served as chair of many doctoral dissertation committees and thus influenced generations of young scholars. In 1997, he moved to Southern California and took a faculty position at CSULB, where he remained until his death in 2009.

Howard Lune is an Associate Professor of Sociology and the Director of the Graduate Social Research Program at Hunter College, CUNY. He specializes in research on organizations and organizational fields, with a particular focus on nonprofit organizations. The majority of his research concerns the efforts by relatively marginal groups to organize for greater political, social and/or economic power. He has published studies of organizing in response to HIV/AIDS, the development of zero tolerance drug policies in the US, state-community relations in political policy domains, and adolescent violence in public schools.

He is presently working on a historical study of the development of the American Irish collective identity, from the founding the US to the end of the twentieth century.

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Quantitative Versus Qualitative Schools of Thought 2

Use of Triangulation in Research Methodology 5

Qualitative Strategies: Defining an Orientation 8

From a Symbolic Interactionist Perspective 9

Why Use Qualitative Methods? 15

A Plan of Presentation 16

References 17

Chapter 2 Designing Qualitative Research 21

Theory and Concepts 21

Ideas and Theory 23

Reviewing the Literature 27

Evaluating Web Sites 29

The Two-Card Method 32

Theory, Reality, and the Social World 36

Framing Research Problems 37

Operationalization and Conceptualization 38

Designing Projects 41

Concept Mapping 42

Creating a Concept Map 45

Setting and Population Appropriateness 46

Sampling Strategies 48

Data Collection and Organization 52

Data Storage, Retrieval, and Analysis 53

Dissemination 55

Trying It Out 56

References 56

Chapter 3 Ethical Issues 60

Research Ethics in Historical Perspective 61

From Guidelines to Law: Regulations on the Research Process 67

Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) 68

IRBs and Their Duties 69

Clarifying the Role of IRBs 72

Active Versus Passive Consent 74

Active Versus Passive Consent in Internet Research 76

Membership Criteria for IRBs 77

Ethical Codes 78

Some Common Ethical Concerns in Behavioral Research 78

Covert Versus Overt Researcher Roles 80

New Areas for Ethical Concern: Cyberspace 84

Protection for Children 85

Debriefing the Subjects 86

Informed Consent and Implied Consent 87

Confidentiality and Anonymity 90

Keeping Identifying Records 91

Strategies for Safeguarding Confidentiality 91

Securing the Data 92

Objectivity and Careful Research Design93

Trying It Out 95

References 95

Chapter 4 A Dramaturgical Look at Interviewing 101

Dramaturgy and Interviewing 102

Types of Interviews 104

The Standardized Interview 105

The Unstandardized Interview 106

The Semistandardized Interview 107

The Interview Schedule 109

Schedule Development 111

Question Order (Sequencing), Content, and Style 112

Communicating Effectively 116

A Few Common Problems in Question Formulation 117

Affectively Worded Questions 117

The Double-Barreled Question 118

Complex Questions 118

Pretesting the Schedule 119

Long Versus Short Interviews 119

Telephone Interviews 121

Advantages of the Telephone Interview 123

Disadvantages of the Telephone Interview 123

Computer Assisted Interviewing 123

Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) 124

Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI) 125

Web-Based In-Depth Interviews 125

Conducting an Interview: A Natural or an Unnatural Communication? 127

The Dramaturgical Interview 128

Interviewer Roles and Rapport 130

The Role of the Interviewee 132

The Interviewer as a Self-Conscious Performer 132

Social Interpretations and the Interviewer 133

The Interviewer's Repertoire 136

Interviewers' Attitudes and Persuading a Subject 139

Developing an Interviewer Repertoire 140

Techniques to Get New Researchers Started 141

Taking the Show on the Road 142

The Ten Commandments of Interviewing 143

Know Your Audience 144

Curtain Calls 146

Analyzing Data Obtained from the Dramaturgical Interview 146

Beginning an Analysis 147

Systematic Filing Systems 147

Short-Answer Sheets 149

Analysis Procedures: A Concluding Remark 149

Trying It Out 150

Notes 151

References 152

Chapter 5 Focus Group Interviewing 158

What are Focus Group Interviews? 158

The Moderator's Role 159

Some Problems to Avoid in Focus Group Interviewing 160

The Evolution of Focus Group Interviews 163

Advantages and Disadvantages of Focus Group Interviewing 165

Focus Group Interviewing and Face-to-Face Interviewing 166

Focus Group Interviewing and Participant Observation 168

Focus Group Interviewing and Unobtrusive Measures 169

Facilitating Focus Group Dynamics: How Focus Groups Work 172

The Moderator's Guide 172

Introduction and Introductory Activities 173

Statement of the Basic Rules or Guidelines for the Interview 173

Short Question-and-Answer Discussions 174

Special Activities or Exercises 174

Guidance for Dealing with Sensitive Issues 175

Basic Ingredients in Focus Groups 175

Analyzing Focus Group Data 180

Confidentiality and Focus Group Interviews 181

Recent Trends in Focus Groups: Online Focus Groups 183

Conclusion 184

Trying It Out 185

Notes 185

References 186

Chapter 6 Ethnographic Field Strategies 190

Accessing a Field Setting: Getting In 194

Reflectivity and Ethnography 198

Critical Ethnography 198

The Attitude of the Ethnographer 200

The Researcher's Voice 200

Gaining Entry 204

Becoming Invisible 207

Dangers of Invisibility 209

Other Dangers During Ethnographic Research 211

Watching, Listening, and Learning 213

How to Learn: What to Watch and Listen For 215

Field Notes 218

Computers and Ethnography 225

OnLine Ethnography 226

Analyzing Ethnographic Data 228

Other Analysis Strategies: Typologies, Sociograms, and Metaphors 230

Typologies 230

Sociograms 232

Metaphors 236

Disengaging: Getting Out 236

Trying It Out 238

References 238

Chapter 7 Action Research 246

The Basics of Action Research 251

Identifying the Research Question(s) 253

Gathering the Information to Answer the Question(s) 254

Analyzing and Interpreting the Information 254

Procedures for Using Interview and Ethnographic Data 255

Guiding Questions of Analysis: Why, What, How, Who, Where, When? 255

Descriptive Accounts and Reports 256

Sharing the Results with the Participants 256

When to Use and When Not to Use Action Research 257

The Action Researcher's Role 258

Types of Action Research 258

Technical/Scientific/Collaborative Mode 259

A Practical/Mutual Collaborative/Deliberate Mode 259

Emancipating or Empowering/Enhancing/Critical Science Mode 260

Photovoice and Action Research 261

The Goals in Photovoice 262

Action Research: A Reiteration 263

Trying It Out 264

References 265

Chapter 8 Unobtrusive Measures in Research 268

Archival Strategies 271

Public Archives 271

Private Archives: Solicited and Unsolicited Documents 282

A Last Remark about Archival Records 286

Physical Erosion and accretion: Human Traces as Data Sources 287

Erosion Measures 287

Accretion Measures 288

Some Final Remarks about Physical Traces 289

Trying It Out 290

References 290

Chapter 9 Historiography and Oral Traditions 296

What Is Historical Research? 296

Life Histories and Historiography 300

What Are the Sources of Data of Historical Researchers? 300

Doing Historiography: Tracing Written History as Data 301

External Criticism 303

Internal Criticism 307

What Are Oral Histories? 309

Trying It Out 313

References 313

Chapter 10 Case Studies 317

The Nature of Case Studies 317

Theory and Case Studies 319

The Individual Case Study 322

The Use of Interview Data 322

The Use of Personal Documents 324

Intrinsic, Instrumental, and Collective Case Studies 325

Case Study Design Types 326

Exploratory Case Studies 327

Explanatory Case Studies 327

Descriptive Case Studies 327

The Scientific Benefit of Case Studies 329

Objectivity and the Case Method 329

Generalizability 330

Case Studies of Organizations 330

Case Studies of Communities 331

Data Collection for Community Case Studies 332

Community Groups and Interests 333

Trying It Out 334

References 335

Chapter 11 An Introduction to Content Analysis 338

What is Content Analysis? 338

Analysis of Qualitative Data 339

Interpretative Approaches 339

Social Anthropological Approaches 339

Collaborative Social Research Approaches 340

Content Analysis as a Technique 341

Content Analysis: Quantitative or Qualitative? 342

Manifest Versus Latent Content Analysis 343

Blending Manifest and Latent Content Analysis Strategies 344

Communication Components 345

What to Count: Levels and Units of Analysis 346

Category Development: Building Grounded Theory 346

What to Count 348

Combinations of Elements 349

Units and Categories 350

Classes and Categories 351

Discourse Analysis and Content Analysis 352

Open Coding 353

Coding Frames 356

A Few More Words on Analytic Induction 358

Interrogative Hypothesis Testing 360

Stages in the Content Analysis Process 362

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Content Analysis Process 364

Computers and Qualitative Analysis 366

Word Processors 368

Text Retrievers 368

Textbase Managers 368

Code-and-Retrieve Programs 368

Code-Based Theory Builders 369

Conceptual Network Builders 369

Qualitative Research at the Speed of Light 371

Trying It Out 372

References 373

Chapter 12 Writing Research Papers: Sorting the Noodles from the Soup 378

Plagiarism: What It Is, Why It's Bad, and How to Avoid It 379

Why Plagiarism Occurs 379

How to Avoid Plagiarism 380

Identifying the Purpose of the Writing: Arranging the Noodles 382

Delineating a Supportive Structure: Visual Signals for the Reader 383

The Title 386

The Abstract 386

The Introduction 387

Literature Review 388

Methodology 390

Findings or Results 392

Discussion/Conclusion 392

References, Notes, and Appendices 393

Presenting Research Material 396

Disseminating the Research: Professional Meetings and Publications 396

A Word About the Content of Papers and Articles 400

Write It, Rewrite It, Then Write It Again! 400

A Few Writing Hints 402

A Final Note 404

Notes 405

References 406

Name Index 408

Subject Index 413

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