## Table of Contents

Introduction

Introduction

Brief Historical Perspective

Principles of Quantum Mechanics

The Feynman Lectures on Physics

Photon

Quantum Optics

Quantum Optics for Engineers

**Planck’s Quantum Energy Equation**

Introduction

Planck’s Equation and Wave Optics

**Uncertainty Principle**

Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Wave–Particle Duality

Feynman Approximation

Interferometric Approximation

Minimum Uncertainty Principle

Generalized Uncertainty Principle

Additional Versions of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Applications of the Uncertainty Principle in Optics

**Dirac Quantum Optics**

Dirac Notation in Optics

Dirac Quantum Principles

Interference and the Interferometric Equation

Coherent and Semicoherent Interferograms

Interferometric Equation in Two and Three Dimensions

Classical and Quantum Alternatives

**Interference, Diffraction, Refraction, and Reflection via the Dirac Notation**

Introduction

Interference and Diffraction

Positive and Negative Refraction

Reflection

Succinct Description of Optics

**Generalized Multiple-Prism Dispersion**

Introduction

Generalized Multiple-Prism Dispersion

Double-Pass Generalized Multiple-Prism Dispersion

Multiple-Return-Pass Generalized Multiple-Prism Dispersion

Multiple-Prism Dispersion and Laser Pulse Compression

**Dirac Notation Identities**

Useful Identities

Linear Operations

**Laser Excitation**

Introduction

Brief Laser Overview

Laser Excitation

Excitation and Emission Dynamics

Quantum Transition Probabilities and Cross Sections

**Laser Oscillators Described via the Dirac Notation**

Introduction

Transverse and Longitudinal Modes

Laser Cavity Equation: An Intuitive Approach

Laser Cavity Equation via the Interferometric Equation

**Interferometry via the Dirac Notation**

Interference

*à la *Dirac

Hanbury Brown–Twiss Interferometer

Two-Beam Interferometers

Multiple-Beam Interferometers

*N*-Slit Interferometer as a Wavelength Meter

Ramsey Interferometer

**Secure Interferometric Communications in Free Space**

Introduction

Theory

*N*-Slit Interferometer for Secure Free-Space Optical Communications

Interferometric Characters

Propagation in Terrestrial Free Space

Discussion

**Schrödinger’s Equation**

Introduction

Schrödinger’s Mind

Heuristic Explicit Approach to Schrödinger’s Equation

Schrödinger’s Equation via the Dirac Notation

Time-Independent Schrödinger’s Equation

Introduction to the Hydrogen Equation

**Introduction to Feynman Path Integrals**

Introduction

Classical Action

Quantum Link

Propagation through a Slit and the Uncertainty Principle

Feynman Diagrams in Optics

**Matrix Aspects of Quantum Mechanics**

Introduction

Introduction to Vector and Matrix Algebra

Quantum Operators

Pauli Matrices

Introduction to the Density Matrix

**Classical Polarization**

Introduction

Maxwell Equations

Polarization and Reflection

Jones Calculus

Polarizing Prisms

Polarization Rotators

**Quantum Polarization**

Introduction

Linear Polarization

Polarization as a Two-State System

Density Matrix Notation

**Entangled Polarizations: Probability Amplitudes and Experimental Configurations**

Introduction

Hamiltonian Approach

Interferometric Approach

Pryce–Ward–Snyder Probability Amplitude of Entanglement

Pryce–Ward–Snyder Probability

Pryce–Ward Experimental Arrangement

Wu–Shaknov Experiment

Conclusion

**Quantum Computing**

Introduction

Interferometric Computer

Classical Logic Gates

Qubits

Quantum Logic

**Quantum Cryptography and Teleportation**

Introduction

Quantum Cryptography

Quantum Teleportation

**Quantum Measurements**

Introduction

Interferometric Irreversible Measurements

Quantum Nondemolition Measurements

Soft Polarization Measurements

Soft Intersection of Interferometric Characters

**Interpretational Issues in Quantum Mechanics**

Introduction

EPR

Bohm Polarization Projection of the EPR Argument

Bell’s Inequalities

Some Prominent Quantum Physicists on Issues of Interpretation

Eisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle and EPR

van Kampen’s Quantum Theorems

On Probabilities and Probability Amplitudes

Comment on the Interpretational Issue

**Appendix A: Survey of Laser Emission Characteristics**

Appendix B: Brief Survey of Laser Resonators and Laser Cavities

Appendix C: Ray Transfer Matrices

Appendix D: Multiple-Prism Dispersion Series

Appendix E: Complex Numbers

Appendix F: Trigonometric Identities

Appendix G: Calculus Basics

Appendix H: Poincaré’s Space

Appendix I: *N*-Slit Interferometric Calculations

Appendix J: *N*-Slit Interferometric Calculations—Numerical Approach

Appendix K: Physical Constants and Optical Quantities