Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors: Physics and Applications

Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors: Physics and Applications

by Harald Schneider, Hui C. Liu


View All Available Formats & Editions
Use Standard Shipping. For guaranteed delivery by December 24, use Express or Expedited Shipping.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9783642447808
Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Publication date: 11/01/2014
Series: Springer Series in Optical Sciences , #126
Edition description: 2007
Pages: 248
Product dimensions: 6.10(w) x 9.25(h) x 0.02(d)

About the Author

Harald Schneider completed his PhD at the Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research (Stuttgart, D) in 1988. In the same year he got the Otto-Hahn-Medal, awarded for the best PhD theses of the Max-Planck-Society. In 1989, he joined the Fraunhofer-Institute for Solid State Physics (Freiburg, D), where he was working on infrared optoelectronics. For the development of infrared cameras of highest thermal resolution, he and his colleagues were awarded the 2001 German Science Foundation Award (Preis des Stifterverbands). In 2005, he switched to the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, where he is now leading the Semiconductor Spectroscopy Division. He has authored and co-authored more than 150 publications.

H. C. Liu got his PhD in applied physics from the University of Pittsburgh in 1987 as an Andrew Mellon Predoctoral Fellow. He is currently the Quantum Devices Group Leader in the Institute for Microstructural Sciences at the National Research Council of Canada. He has authored and co-authored about 250 refereed journal articles (with about 80 first or sole authored), and given 90 talks (53 invited) at international conferences. He has been elected as a Fellow of the American Physical Society, granted over a dozen patents, and awarded the Herzberg Medal from the Canadian Association of Physicists in 2000 and the Bessel Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation in 2001.

Both authors were involved in QWIPs from the very beginning, including basic research, device optimization, system applications, and novel directions. Their combined work covers a significant share of QWIP research that has been conducted worldwide.

Table of Contents

Introduction     1
Basics of Infrared Detection     5
Blackbody Radiation     5
Signal, Noise, and Noise-Equivalent Power     7
Detectivity and Noise-Equivalent Temperature Difference     10
Semiconductor Quantum Wells and Intersubband Transitions     13
Quantum Wells     13
Intersubband Transitions     13
Intersubband Transition: More Details     18
Basic Formulae     18
Calculations for a Symmetric Quantum Well     21
Transfer-Matrix Method     27
Corrections to the Intersubband Energy and Lineshape     29
Coulomb Interaction     29
Many-Particle Effects     31
Further Interactions     34
Band Nonparabolicity     36
Intersubband Relaxation and Carrier Capture     39
Electron-Phonon Interaction     40
Electron-Impurity and Electron-Electron Scattering     41
Photoconductive QWIP     45
Dark Current     45
Simple Models     45
Self-Consistent and Numerical Models     55
Photocurrent     57
Photoconductive Gain     57
Detector Responsivity     64
Detector Performance     65
Detector Noise     65
Detectivity and Blip Condition     67
Design of an Optimized Detector     72
THz QWIPs     75
Design Considerations     76
Experimental and Discussion     77
Photovoltaic QWIP     83
General Concept     83
The Four-Zone QWIP     85
Transport Mechanism and Device Structure     85
Responsivity and Dark Current     88
Noise     89
Detectivity     92
Time Dependence     93
Theoretical Performance of Low-Noise QWIPs     94
Optical Coupling     97
Simple Experimental Geometries     97
Gratings for Focal Plane Arrays     100
Strong Coupling in Waveguides, Polaritons, and Vacuum-Field Rabi Splitting     104
Miscellaneous Effects     107
Intersubband Absorption Saturation     107
Nonlinear Transport and Optical Effects     109
Extrinsic (Photoconductive) Nonlinearity     109
Negative Differential Photoconductivity and Electric Field Domains     115
Intrinsic Nonlinearity     121
Asymmetry Caused by Dopant Segregation      123
Coherent Photocurrent     125
Coherent Control by Optical Fields     125
Coherent Control Through Potential Offsets     128
Impact Ionization and Avalanche Multiplication     131
Radiation Hardness     135
Related Structures and Devices     139
High Absorption QWIPs     139
Absorption Measurements     139
Detector Characteristics     141
Multicolor QWIPs     144
Voltage Switched Multicolor QWIP     146
Voltage Tuned Multicolor QWIP     149
Interband and Intersubband Dual-band Detectors     151
Using the Same Quantum Well     151
Stacked QWIP and PIN     158
Integrated QWIP-LED     161
Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector     163
Anticipated Advantages and Current Status     165
Areas for Improvement     170
Single Well and Blocked Miniband QWIPs     170
Transistors and Monolithic Integration     172
Thermal Imaging     175
Signal, Noise, and Noise-Equivalent Temperature Difference     175
Signal Detection     175
Detector Noise     177
System Noise      178
Thermal Resolution     179
Fixed-Pattern Noise and NETD of an Array     181
Modulation Transfer Function     183
QWIP Cameras     185
Fabrication of QWIP FPAs     185
System Integration     187
Camera Performance     188
MWIR/LWIR Dual-Band QWIP FPA     190
Detector Concept     191
Array Fabrication and FPA Layout     193
Properties of Dual-Band QWIP Test Devices     194
System Integration and Dual-Band QWIP FPA Performance     195
Opportunities for QWIP FPAs in Thermal Imaging     196
Alternative Architecture and New Functionality of QWIP FPAs     199
Dynamics, Ultrafast, and Heterodyne     203
Dynamic Processes in QWIPs     203
Quantum Well Recharging     204
Picosecond Photocurrent     208
High Frequency and Heterodyne QWIPs     213
Microwave Rectification     213
Heterodyne Detection     216
Two-Photon QWIP     220
Equidistant Three-Level System for Quadratic Detection     220
Autocorrelation of Subpicosecond Optical Pulses     223
Externally Switchable Quadratic and Linear Response      225
Conclusions and outlook     229
References     231
Index     247

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews