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SAGE Publications
Race and Crime / Edition 4

Race and Crime / Edition 4

by Shaun L. Gabbidon, Helen Taylor-Greene


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781483384184
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Publication date: 10/15/2015
Edition description: Fourth Edition
Pages: 320
Sales rank: 275,346
Product dimensions: 7.30(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Shaun L. Gabbidon is Distinguished Professor of Criminal Justice in the School of Public Affairs at Penn State Harrisburg. He earned his Ph D in Criminology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Gabbidon has served as a fellow at Harvard University’s W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for Afro-American Research and as an adjunct faculty member in the Center for Africana Studies at the University of Pennsylvania. His areas of interest include race and crime, criminal justice and criminology pedagogy, and private security. Professor Gabbidon is the author of more than 100 scholarly publications, including 60 peer-reviewed articles and 11 books.

Helen Taylor Greene is Professor of Administration of Justice in the Barbara Jordan–Mickey Leland School of Public Affairs (SPA) at Texas Southern University (TSU). She completed her BS in Sociology at Howard University, her MS in the Administration of Justice at American University, and both her MA in Political Science and Ph D in Criminology at the University of Maryland, College Park. Her areas of research include race and crime, juvenile justice, and policing. She has authored and co-authored books, has peer-reviewed articles and book chapters, and has served as lead editor for the Encyclopedia of Race and Crime (2009).

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xv

1 Overview of Race and Crime 1

Prejudice and Discrimination 5

Historical Antecedents of Race and Crime in America 7

Native Americans 7

African Americans 9

White Ethnics 19

Latino Americans 25

Asian Americans 29

Conclusion 35

Discussion Questions 36

Internet Exercise 36

Internet Sites 36

2 Extent of Crime and Victimization 37

History of Crime and Victimization Statistics in the United States 40

The Uniform Crime Reporting Program 41

Victimization Surveys 45

Limitations of Arrest and Victimization Data 46

Definitions of Racial Categories 46

Variations in Reporting and Recording 48

Utilization of Population, Crime, Arrest, and Victimization Estimates 49

Arrest Trends 49

Victimization Trends 52

Homicide Victimizations 53

Hate Crime Trends 55

Conclusion 57

Discussion Questions 59

Internet Exercises 60

Internet Sites 60

3 Theoretical Perspectives on Race and Crime 61

What Is Theory? 62

Biology, Race, and Crime 63

Crime and Human Nature 64

Intelligence, Race, and Crime 65

r/K Life History Theory 66

Sociological Explanations 69

Social Disorganization 70

Contemporary Social Disorganization Theory 72

Mass Incarceration and Social Disorganization 75

Collective Efficacy 75

Culture Conflict Theory 76

Strain/Anomie Theory 78

Limitations of Strain/Anomie Theory 79

General Strain Theory 80

Subcultural Theory 81

The Subculture of Violence Theory 81

The Code of the Streets 85

Conflict Theory 88

Conflict Theory, Race, and Crime 89

The Colonial Model 92

Integrated and Nontraditional Theories on Race and Crime 94

Structural-Cultural Theory 94

Abortion, Race, and Crime95

Critical Race Theory 96

Conclusion 96

Discussion Questions 98

Internet Exercise 98

4 Policing 99

Overview of Policing in America 100

Historical Overview of Race and Policing 102

Native Americans 104

African Americans 107

Asian Americans 108

Latinos 109

White Immigrants 110

Contemporary Issues in Race and Policing 111

Citizen Satisfaction With Police 112

Police Deviance 115

Racial Profiling 118

Police Accountability 126

Police Innovations 127

Conclusion 129

Discussion Questions 129

Internet Exercise 129

Internet Sites 130

5 Courts 131

Overview of American Courts: Actors and Processes 134

A Note on the Philosophy, Operation, and Structure of Native American Courts 136

Historical Overview of Race and the Courts in America 138

Native Americans 138

African Americans 139

Latinos 141

Asian Americans 142

Contemporary Issues in Race and the Courts 143

Bail and the Pretrial Process 143

Race and Pretrial Release 144

Scholarship on Bail and Pretrial Release 145

Legal Counsel 147

Defense Counsel 147

Statewide Study of Pennsylvania's Public Defense System 148

Plea Bargaining 149

Jury Selection 150

Voir Dire 152

Jury Nullification 155

Drug Courts 157

Structure and Philosophy of Drug Courts 158

Effectiveness of Drug Courts 159

Conclusion 160

Discussion Questions 161

Internet Exercise 161

Internet Sites 161

6 Sentencing 163

Sentencing Philosophies 164

Sentencing and Politics 164

Historical Overview of Race and Sentencing 165

Punishment in Colonial America 165

Early Colonial Cases 166

Crime and Justice in Colonial New York 169

Early National Sentencing Statistics 172

The 1980s to 2000s: The Changing Nature of Sentencing Practices 173

The "War on Drugs" 176

Contemporary Issues in Race and Sentencing 177

Scholarship on Race and Sentencing 177

Race and Misdemeanor Sentencing 182

Sentencing Disparities and the "War on Drugs" 183

Minority Judges 189

Conclusion 197

Discussion Questions 198

Internet Exercise 198

Internet Sites 199

7 The Death Penalty 201

Significant Death Penalty Cases 201

Historical Overview of Race and the Death Penalty 204

Current Statistics on the Death Penalty 208

State Death Penalty Statistics 208

Federal Death Penalty Statistics 208

Scholarship on Race and the Death Penalty 214

Substitution Thesis/Zimring Analysis 215

Public Opinion and the Death Penalty 217

Race and Support for the Death Penalty 218

The Marshall Hypotheses 220

Contemporary Issues in Race and the Death Penalty 221

Capital Jury Project 221

Wrongful Convictions 222

Death Penalty Moratorium Movement 228

Conclusion 229

Discussion Questions 229

Internet Exercise 230

Internet Sites 230

8 Corrections 231

Overview of American Corrections 232

Public Opinion and Corrections 233

Historical Overview of Race and Corrections 234

Early National Prison Statistics 238

Prison Gangs 242

Contemporary State of Corrections 245

Jails 247

Probation and Parole 249

Contemporary Issues in Race and Corrections 250

Explaining Racial Disparities in Corrections 250

Prisoner Reentry Concerns 253

Felon Disenfranchisement 258

Political Prisoners 260

Conclusion 261

Discussion Questions 262

Internet Exercise 262

Internet Sites 262

9 Juvenile Justice 263

Overview of Juvenile Justice 264

Historical Overview of Race and Juvenile Justice 267

The Child Savers 268

Juvenile Courts 269

Juvenile Crime and Victimization 270

Data on Youth in the Juvenile Justice System 280

Contemporary Issues in Race and Juvenile Justice 281

Disproportionate Minority Confinement 281

The Future of DMC 285

Minority Female Delinquency 286

Juveniles, Race, and the Death Penalty 288

Delinquency Prevention 290

Conclusion 292

Discussion Questions 293

Internet Exercises 293

Internet Sites 293

Conclusion 295

Appendix 299

References 307

Index 345

About the Authors 367

Photo Credits and Permissions 369

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