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This is a comparative study of Wendell Berry's theory of New Agrarian economics in contrast with other agrarian proposals, as well as communist, capitalist and feudal economic theories. The argument for an agrarian world has both similarities and sharp contrasts with Marxist communism, industrial capitalism, and classic feudalism. Agrarianism can be seen more clearly when it is contrasted and shown as having existed in parallel with each of these stages of economic world development. As the world quickly grows in the direction of overpopulation and pollution, a re-evaluation is needed of the previously used sustainability methods that have kept humanity in balance with the earth for millennia. As resources continue to become scarcer, those who can support themselves independently from mass-agricultural ventures might have a survival advantage. And this advantage should be explored before the world reaches a catastrophic phase. As the American farming population shrinks further below one percent of the overall population, this is a crucial moment to consider if agrarianism and agriculture itself should retain a central role in American political theory, or if it should fade into the past.