Looking at the key, but relatively neglected, campaign of 1943, this book offers a thorough and nuanced reassessment of the RAF bomber offensive at a time when the war in Europe still hung in the balance. Whilst the bombing campaign against German cities has long been one of the most controversial and hotly debated aspects of the Second World War, most of the attention has been directed towards the vast 'thousand bomber raids' of 1944-5, by which time it was clear that an Allied victory was inevitable. As such, the direction of earlier campaigns is often glossed over as a simple progression, attacking targets progressively deeper inside Germany. But, as this study reveals, in reality the path of Bomber Command's strategic operations was not so linear. Instead, the period from August to November 1943 shows clearly that ACM Sir Arthur Harris conducted an offensive against targets throughout central and southern Germany. In other words, he directed a fourth (or "hidden") air offensive which ranks alongside the "Battles" of the Ruhr, Hamburg and Berlin. Given the on-going moral, strategic and tactical debates regarding the Allied bombing campaign, this book offers an important new dimension to the argument. By focussing attention back on events of 1943, not only is a neglected campaign given proper consideration, but a fuller understanding of the entire air campaign of the war is possible.