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Reader on Classical Islam / Edition 1

Reader on Classical Islam / Edition 1

by F. E. Peters


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Reader on Classical Islam / Edition 1

To enable the reader to shape, or perhaps reshape, an understanding of the Islamic tradition, F.E. Peters skillfully combines extensive passages from Islamic texts with a fascinating commentary of his own. In so doing, he presents a substantial body of literary evidence that will enable the reader to grasp the bases of Muslim faith and, more, to get some sense of the breadth and depth of Islamic religious culture as a whole. The voices recorded here are those of Muslims engaged in discourse with their God and with each other--historians, lawyers, mystics, and theologians, from the earliest Companions of the Prophet Muhammad down to Ibn Rushd or "Averroes" (d. 1198), al-Nawawi (d. 1278), and Ibn Khaldun (d. 1406). These religious seekers lived in what has been called the "classical" period in the development of Islam, the era when the exemplary works of law and spirituality were written, texts of such universally acknowledged importance that subsequent generations of Muslims gratefully understood themselves as heirs to an enormously broad and rich legacy of meditation on God's Word.

"Islam" is a word that seems simple to understand. It means "submission," and, more specifically in the context where it first and most familiarly appears, "submission to the will of God." That context is the Quran, the Sacred Book of the Muslims, from which flow the patterns of belief and practice that today claim the spiritual allegiance of hundreds of millions around the globe. By drawing on the works of the great masters--Islam in its own words--Peters enriches our understanding of the community of "those who have submitted" and their imposing religious and political culture, which is becoming ever more important to the West.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900691000403
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Publication date: 12/27/1993
Edition description: New Edition
Pages: 440
Product dimensions: 6.00(w) x 1.25(h) x 9.00(d)

About the Author

F. E. Peters is Professor of Near Eastern Languages and Literatures and History at New York University and the author of many books on Islam, including The Hajj (forthcoming from Princeton).

Table of Contents

Introduction: A Primer on Islam3
Chapter IThe Past, Sacred and Profane
1.The Quran on Creation8
2.Adam and the Angels10
3.The Primordial Ka'ba II
4.The Covenant with Abraham13
5.Abraham and Ishmael in the Holy Land16
6.Abraham the Builder17
7.The Beginning of the Pilgimage Ritual20
8.The Prophet Moses22
9.The Wisdom of Solomon24
10.The Muslims' Jesus27
11.A Muslim Account of Pentecost34
12.Mecca in the Era of Ignorance35
13.The Religion of Mecca37
14.Pre-Islamic Monotheism39
15.The Hanifs40
Chapter 2The Life and Work of the Prophet
1.Muhammad's Descent from Adam44
2.The Birth of the Prophet44
3.The Scriptural Prediction of the Coming of the Prophet of Islam46
4.Marriage with Khadija49
5.Muhammad's Call and First Revelation so
6.Sadness, Doubt, Consolation53
7.The Conversion of Ali54
8.The Earliest Public Preaching of Islam SS
9.The Opposition of the Quraysh59
10.Persecution and Migration to Abyssinia61
11.The Boycott63
12.Muhammad's Night Journey64
13.Losses, Personal and Political67
14.An Invitation from Yathrib68
15.A Turn to Armed Resistance70
16.The Hijra or Migration to Medina (622 C.E.)71
17.The Constitution of Medina74
18.Jewish Opposition75
19.Fighting in the Sacred Month76
20.The Battle at the Badr Wells77
21.The Fate of the Banu Qaynuqa'78
22.From Badr to the Battle of the Trench79
23.The Banu Qurayza83
24.The Arrangement at Hudaybiyya85
25.The Pilgrimage Fulfilled88
26."The Truth Has Come and Falsehood Has Passed Away"89
27.Consolidation of Gains90
28.The Submission of the Idolators91
29.A Primer on Islam92
30.The Farewell Pilgrimage94
31.Muhammad's Illness and Death (June 632 C.E.)95
32.The Beginning of the Muslim Era97
Chapter 3The Community of Muslims
1.The Peoples of the Book99
2.The Errors of the Jews100
3.The Jews Warned by Their Own Prophets102
4.The Error of the Christians103
5.The Muslim Community104
6.An Arabic Quran106
7."Catholic" Islam: Staying Close to the Tradition109
8.A shi'ite View of the Community112
9.Wrong Belief and Unbelief113
10.The Caliphate117
11.Caliph and Imam120
12.The Ruler, Chosen by the People or Designated by God?122
13.Ali, the First Imam124
14.The Pool of Khum127
15.The Martyrdom of Husayn128
16.The "People of the House"131
17.The shi'ite Succession133
18.Awaiting the Hidden Imam135
19."Twelvers" and "Seveners" among the Shi'ites140
20.A juridical Portrait of the Sunni Caliph142
21.The Powers of the Caliph-Imam144
22.The Delegation of the Royal Power: The Sultanate147
23.The Religious Powers of the Caliph148
24.The Five Pillars of Islam ISO
25.Moral Islam152
26.Alms and Charity153
27.The Sixth Pillar: War in the Path of God154
28."There Is No Compulsion in Religion"156
Chapter 4The Word of God and Its Understanding
1.A Muslim History of Prophecy158
2.Did the Jews and Christians Tamper with Scripture?161
3.The Divine Origin of the Quran165
4.Muhammad's Ascension into Heaven168
5.The Night of Destiny16q
6.The Heavenly Book170
7.The Quran: Created or Uncreated?172
8."Bring a Sura Like It"173
9.The Earliest Sura175
10.The Heart of the Quran: The "Throne Verse"176
11.The "Satanic Verses"177
12.The Revelation and Its Copy178
13.Uthman's Recension of the Quran179
14.Who Put Together the Suras?181
15.The Seven "Readings" of the Quran181
16.Textual Corruptions? The Shi'ite View183
17.The Proofs of Prophecy18S
18.Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets18S
19.Muhammad among the Prophets187
20.Avicenna on the Prophethood of Muhammad189
21.The Clear and the Ambiguous in the Quran191
22.How the Muslim Should Read the Quran194
23.Quranic Exegesis19S
24.Where Did the Muslim Commentators Get Their Information?197
25.The Outer and Inner Meanings of the Quran198
26.Ghazali on the Sciences of Revelation201
27.Allegorical Interpretation as a Resolution of Apparent Contradictions203
28.Dull Masses and Minds Tied Down to Sensibles205
29.The Pleasures of Paradise207
Chapter 5The Quran, the Prophet, and the Law
1.On the Usefulness of Tradition213
2.Scripture, Tradition, and the Law in Islam214
3.The Word of God Is One: The Inspiration of the Prophetic Traditions220
4.Their Transmission220
5.Tendentious and Sectarian Traditions221
6.The Criticism of Traditions222
7.The Categories of Traditions224
8.The Companions of the Prophet224
9.Contradictory Traditions22S
10.The Canonical Collections226
11.The Derivation of God's Commands227
12.On Consensus229
13.Personal Initiative in the Law231
14.Legal Knowledge and Legal Obligations236
15.The Collective Obligation237
16.The Evolution of Islamic jurisprudence239
17.The Classical Schools240
18.The End of the Age of the Fathers242
19.Abrogation in Islamic Law243
20.The Case of the Woman Taken in Adultery246
21.Crimes and Their Penalties in the Quran248
22.Divorce in Islamic Law249
23.Controversial Questions251
24."0 Believers, Fasting Is Enjoined on You"252
Chapter 6The Worship of God
1.How Paganism and Idol Worship Came to Mecca258
2.Islam and the Graven Image260
3.The Muslims' Prayer263
4.Prophetic Traditions on Prayer26S
5.The Direction of Prayer268
6.The Prophet Builds His Mosque270
7.The Institution of the Call to Prayer271
8.On the Manner and Intent of Prayer272
9.The Friday Service274
10.The Two Liturgical Festival Days276
11.A Muslim Holy Day: The Tenth of Muharram277
12.The Pilgrimage of Islam279
13.Muhammad's Farewell Pilgrimage280
14.Islamicizing the Hajj28S
15.The Twelfth-Century Haram289
16.Ghazali on the Proper Performance of the Hajj294
17.The Prophet's Mosque and Tomb at Medina298
18.A Visit to Medina302
Chapter 7Saints and Mystics
1.This World and the Next: The Islamic Preaching307
2.The Historical Origins of the Sufi Movement310
3.Conversions and Affirmations312
4.Two Sufi Autobiographies: Ibn Abi al-Khayr and al-Ghazali315
5."No Monasticism in Islam"321
6.Monks and Sufis322
7.Sufi. Communities32S
8.Convent Life in Islam328
9.The Lamp in the Niche330
10.What Is the Mystic Way?332
11.Junayd on Oneness of and with God33S
13.Oneness with God Is Not Identity with God338
14.The Life and Death of a Mystic: Al-Hallaj339
15."I Am the Truth"341
16.Ecstatic Utterances342
17.The Face in the Mirror343
18.Al-Jili and the Perfect Man349
19.Ibn Khaldun: An Evaluation of the Sufi. Tradition351
20.Sufis and shi'ites353
Chapter 8Islamic Theology
1.The Origins of Theology in Islam358
2.The Intrusion of Philosophy into Dialectical Theology361
3.The Limited Role of Dialectical Theology363
4.The Fundamentalist Position: "Without Howing" versus Dialectical Theology365
5.Ash'ari on the Charge of Heretical Innovation367
6.Rationalist Theology368
7.Farabi on God's Providence369
8.Ghazali on Theology and Muslim Belief370
9.The Truth of Philosophy371
10.Rationalist Ethics and Revealed Morality372
11.Ibn Rushd: The Law Commands the Study of Philosophy374
12.The Mystic's Gnosis and the Theologian's Science377
13.The Illumination of the Intellect382
14.The Life after Death388
15.The Second Coming: The Muslim Tradition389
16."A Man from My Family"391
17.The Preaching of God's Final Judgment392
18.The End Defined401
19.The Torments of the Grave403
20.The Incoherence of the Philosophers on the Afterlife405
21.An End to Hell?409
22.The Vision of God411
Sources Cited413

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