Pub. Date:
Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Reading and Learning to Read / Edition 7

Reading and Learning to Read / Edition 7

by Jo Anne L. VaccaJo Anne L. Vacca
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With a focus on helping elementary reading teachers master teaching skills that will help all children succeed, Reading and Learning to Read includes philosophies, teaching strategies, and assessment practices reflecting and underscoring the concepts of evidence-based reading research and data-driven decision-making. The new 10th Edition is completely up to date; integrates the 2017 ILA Standards and Common Core State Standards (CCSS) initiative throughout the text; features the English Language Arts (ELA) standards respectively as they relate to the content in each chapter; and continues the focus on the applications of technology to literacy instruction, including new coverage of how transliteracies are transforming the way children comprehend and express their understanding of the world.

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 2900137147969
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date: 04/11/2008
Series: MyEducationLab Series
Edition description: Older Edition
Pages: 624
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 1.50(h) x 9.50(d)

About the Author

Richard and Jo Anne Vacca are professors emeriti in the School of Teaching, Leadership, and Curriculum Studies in the College and Graduate School of Education, Health, and Human Services at Kent State University. They met as undergraduate English majors at SUNY–Albany and have been partners ever since. Jo Anne taught middle school language arts in New York and Illinois and received her doctorate from Boston University. Rich taught high school English and earned his doctorate at Syracuse University. He is a past president of the International Reading Association. The Vaccas have a daughter, Courtney; son-in-law, Gary; and grandsons, Simon, Max, and Joe. They volunteer, golf, and walk their toy poodles, Tiger Lily, Gigi, and Joely, in Vero Beach, Florida.

Mary Gove is an associate professor at Cleveland State University in the graduate literacy education program and served as a co-author on the early editions of Reading and Learning to Read. Her research interests include action research and how teachers’ beliefs about teaching and learning influence classroom practice and teacher efficacy. Dr. Gove has also presented papers at various conferences and seminars worldwide. A recent area of focus for Dr. Gove has been ecological critical literacy (ECL), an approach to enhance how we read and critically think about published and broadcasted information about the present environmental depletion of natural resources.

Linda Burkey is a professor of education at the University of Mount Union in Alliance, Ohio. She is also the current appointee of the endowed Lester D. Crow Professorship in Education. Dr. Burkey teaches courses in the areas of reading methods, reading assessment, and special education. Prior to receiving her Ph.D. from Kent State University, Dr. Burkey taught special and elementary education. Her areas of interest in research include reading assessment and adolescent literacy. Dr. Burkey enjoys traveling and spending time with her family. She is a proud grandmother of Maura, Aubrey, and Ryan.

Lisa Lenhart is a professor of literacy in the College of Education at The University of Akron. She works with doctoral students and is the director of the Center for Literacy. As a former elementary school teacher and Title I reading teacher, Dr. Lenhart focuses her scholarship on early literacy development and has co-written several books, including Oral Language and Early Literacy in Preschool and Early Literacy Materials Selector (ELMS): A Tool for Review of Early Literacy Program Materials. Dr. Lenhart received her PhD from Kent State University. In her free time, Dr. Lenhart enjoys hiking and reading. She is the mother of young adult daughters, Hannah and Emma.

Christine McKeon is a professor of early and middle childhood reading education at Walsh University in North Canton, Ohio. She holds a Ph.D. from Kent State University where she studied under the mentorship of Drs. Rich and Jo Anne Vacca. Chris is a former second-grade teacher and Title I reading teacher, as well as high school reading teacher. She is a former co-editor of the Ohio Reading Teacher, an IRA-affiliated professional journal. She has also authored and co-authored numerous professional literacy articles and chapters in contemporary professional publications. Dr. McKeon's current interests focus on technology and new literacies. She is especially grateful to her son, Jimmy, for designing the cover for the tenth edition of Reading and Learning to Read!

Table of Contents

Brief Contents

Chapter 1 Knowledge and Beliefs about Reading 1

Chapter 2 Approaches to Reading Instruction 31

Chapter 3 Meeting the Literacy Needs of Diverse Learners 52

Chapter 4 Foundations of Language and Literacy 76

Chapter 5 Assessing Reading Performance 112

Chapter 6 Word Identification 150

Chapter 7 Reading Fluency 187

Chapter 8 Vocabulary Knowledge and Concept Development 212

Chapter 9 Comprehending Narrative Text 246

Chapter 10 Comprehending Informational Text 275

Chapter 11 Reading—Writing Connections 311

Chapter 12 Bringing Children and Text Together 342

Chapter 13 Instructional Materials 369

Table of Contents

Features xii

Preface xiv

1 Knowledge and Beliefs About Reading 1

The Importance of Belief Systems 4

Different Beliefs, Different Instructional Decisions 5

Differing Instructional Decisions 5

Reading Instruction and Teachers’ Belief Systems 7

National Initiatives 7

Teacher Preparation 9

Transliteracy 9

Multiple Approaches to Reading Instruction 11

How Teachers Come to Know About Reading and Learning to Read 13

Constructing Personal Knowledge 13

Constructing Practical Knowledge 14

Constructing Professional Knowledge and Expertise 14

Perspectives on Learning to Read 16

Cognitive Insights into Reading and Learning to Read 17

The Alphabetic Principle and Learning to Read 17

Schema Theory and Reading Comprehension 19

Metacognition and Learning 20

Reading from a Language Perspective 22

Psycholinguistics and Reading 23

Sociolinguistics and Reading 24

Models of Reading 25

Bottom-Up Models 26

Top-Down Models 27

Interactive Models 28

RTI for Struggling Readers 28

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Knowledge and Beliefs about Reading? 29

Summary 29

Teacher Action Research 29

Through the Lens of the Common Core 30

2 Approaches to Reading Instruction 31

Belief Systems and Approaches to Literacy Instruction 33

Beliefs About Reading 34

Curriculum Perspectives 36

Bottom-Up Curricula 38

Readers and Textbooks 38

Top-Down Curricula 38

Classroom Conditions for Learning 40

Instructional Approaches 41

The Basal Reading Approach 42

The Language-Experience Approach 42

Literature-Based Instruction Approaches 43

Technology-Based Instruction 44

Technology-Based Instructional

Considerations 45

Individualizing Instruction 46

The Integrated Approach 47

Expertise Matters More than Approach 47

RTI for Struggling Readers 49

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Approaches to Reading Instruction? 50

Summary 50

Teacher Action Research 50

Through the Lens of the Common Core 51

3 Meeting the Literacy Needs of Diverse Learners 52

Linguistic Diversity in Literacy Classrooms 54

Instructional Beliefs About Linguistic Diversity 55

Instructional Principles for Students Speaking Diverse Languages and Dialects 55

Instructional Strategies for Students Speaking Diverse Languages 57

Sheltered English Adaptations 57

Instructional Conversations 58

Response Protocol 58

Wordless Books 59

Content Area Practices 60

Dialects 61

Code-Switching 61

Dialectical Miscues 62

Cultural Diversity in Literacy Classrooms 62

Instructional Beliefs About Cultural Diversity 62

Instructional Principles for Students from Diverse Cultures 64

Instructional Strategies for Culturally Diverse Students 64

Determining Cultural Expectations 64

Background Knowledge and Motivation 64

Using Culturally Responsive Read-Alouds 65

Choosing Quality Multicultural Literature 65

Fostering Ethnic, National, and Global Identification 66

Technology-Enhanced Instruction 66

Academic and Cognitive Diversity in Literacy Classrooms 67

Instructional Beliefs About Academic and Cognitive Diversity 67

Instructional Principles for Academic and Cognitive Diversity 68

Inclusion 68

Curriculum Compacting 69

Differentiated Instruction 69

Instructional Strategies for Students with Diverse Academic and Cognitive Abilities 70

Multisensory Phonics Strategies 70

Technology-Based Diagnostic Strategies 70

Inquiry Learning 71

Transliteracies 71

RTI for Struggling Readers 73

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Diversity? 74

Summary 74

Teacher Action Research 74

Through the Lens of the Common Core 75

4 Foundations of Language and Literacy 76

Literacy Development 78

How Oral Language Develops 78

How Reading Develops 80

Phase 1: Awareness and Exploration 80

Phase 2: Experimental Reading and Writing 80

Phase 3: Early Reading and Writing 81

Phase 4: Transitional Reading and Writing 81

Phase 5: Independent and Productive Reading and Writing 81

How Writing Develops 82

The Importance of Scribbling 82

Oral Language and Vocabulary 85

Phonological Awareness 86

Alphabet Knowledge 86

Developmental Writing 86

Print Knowledge 87

Literate Learning Environments 87

Creating Literate Learning Environments at Home 87

Creating Literate Environments in the Classroom 88

Design of the Classroom Environment 88

Literacy-Related Play Centers 90

Facilitating Language and Literacy 92

Learning About Literacy Through Books 92

Storybooks 92

Nonfiction Books 93

Big Books 94

E-Books 94

Class-Made Books 96

Steps to Follow in Producing Language-Experience Stories 97

Having Students Dictate Stories 97

Learning About the Relationships Between Speech and Print 99

Learning About Features of Written Language 100

Learning About Letters and Sounds 100

Recognizing Letters 101

Phonological Awareness 102

Phonemic Awareness 102

Developing Phonemic Awareness in Children 103

Assessing Language and Literacy in Young Children 105

Assessing Print Knowledge 106

Assessing Alphabet Knowledge 106

Assessing Phonological Awareness and Phonemic Awareness 107

Assessing Developmental Writing 109

RTI for Struggling Readers 109

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Beginning Readers and Writers? 110

Summary 110

Teacher Action Research 111

Through the Lens of the Common Core 111

5 Assessing Reading Performance 112

Toward a Collaborative Framework for Decision Making 114

Trends in Assessment 115

High-Stakes Testing 116

Authentic Assessment 118

Technology in Assessment 120

Formal Assessment 121

Standardized Tests 121

Types of Test Scores 122

Types of Tests 123

Uses of Standardized Test Results 124

Criterion-Referenced Tests 125

Informal Assessment 126

Informal Reading Inventories 126

Administering an IRI 127

Recording Oral Reading Errors 127

Determining Reading Levels 128

Analyzing Oral Reading Miscues 129

Running Records 133

Administering a Running Record 134

Analyzing Running Records 135

Kidwatching While Teaching 137

Anecdotal Notes 138

Checklists 139

Interviewing 140

Other Informal Assessments 141

Portfolio Assessment 142

Essential Elements of Portfolios 143

Implementing Portfolios in the Classroom 143

Assessment Today and Tomorrow 145

RTI for Struggling Readers 147

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Reading Performance? 147

Summary 148

Teacher Action Research 148

Through the Lens of the Common Core 149

6 Word Identification 150

Defining Word Identification 152

Phases of Development in Children’s Ability to Identify Words 154

Approaches and Guidelines for Teaching Phonics 156

Traditional Approaches 157

Analytic Phonics Instruction 157

Synthetic Phonics Instruction 157

Syllables 158

Contemporary Approaches 159

Analogy-Based Phonics Instruction 160

Embedded Phonics Instruction 160

Guidelines for Contemporary Phonics Instruction 161

Strategies for Teaching Phonics 162

Consonant-Based Strategies 162

Multisensory Activities 162

Consonant Substitution 163

Flip Books 163

Making Words 163

Word Ladders 164

Cube Words 164

Analogic-Based Strategies 165

Poetry 166

Making and Writing Words Using Letter Patterns 166

Spelling-Based Strategies 166

Word Banks 166

Word Walls 167

Word Sorting 167

Using Meaning and Letter–Sound Information to Identify Words 168

Strategies for Teaching Context 168

Cloze Passages 169

Cloze with Choices Given 169

Guessing Games 170

Semantic Gradients and Context Clues 170

Cross-Checking and Self-Monitoring Strategies 171

Using Structural Analysis to Identify Words 173

Strategies for Teaching Structural Analysis 173

Word Study Notebook 173

Wall Chart Carousel 174

Compound Word Cups 174

Contraction Search 174

Rapid Recognition of Words 175

High-Frequency Words 175

Teaching Function Words 178

Incremental Rehearsal 178

Language-Experience Strategy 178

Word Walls 179

Environmental Print 179

Word Games 179

Literature and Poetry 179

Teaching Key Words 179

Group Activities with Key Words 179

Organizing Word Identification Instruction 180

Principle 1 180

Principle 2 181

Principle 3 181

Balancing Word Identification Instruction 182

RTI for Struggling Readers 184

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Word Identification? 184

Summary 185

Teacher Action Research 186

Through the Lens of the Common Core 186

7 Reading Fluency 187

Defining Oral Reading Fluency 189

Accuracy in Word Decoding 190

Automatic Processing 191

Prosody 191

Predictability of Reading Materials 192

Developing Oral Reading Fluency 192

Strategies for Groups of Students 194

Choral Reading 194

Echo Reading 195

Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) 195

Reader’s Theater 196

Fluency Idol 198

Strategies for Pairs and Individual Students 198

Repeated Readings 198

Paired Repeated Readings 199

The Fluency Development Lesson 200

Peer Tutoring 201

Automated Reading 201

The Oral Recitation Lesson 202

Involving Parents 203

What Parents Can Do to Help at Home 204

Assessing Oral Reading Fluency 205

Accuracy and Automaticity 205

Prosody 206

Silent Reading Fluency 208

Developing Silent Reading Fluency 208

RTI for Struggling Readers 210

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Reading

Fluency? 210

Summary 211

Teacher Action Research 211

Through the Lens of the Common Core 211

8 Vocabulary Knowledge and Concept Development 212

The Relationship Between Vocabulary and Comprehension 215

Experiences, Concepts, and Words 216

Words as Labels for Concepts 217

Words and Concepts: A Closer Look 218

Class, Example, and Attribute Relationships 219

Principles to Guide Vocabulary Instruction 221

Principle 1: Select Words That Children Will Encounter While Reading Text and Content Material 221

Key Words 221

Useful Words 222

Interesting Words 222

Vocabulary-Building Words 222

Principle 2: Teach Words in Relation to Other Words 222

Principle 3: Teach Students to Relate Words to Their Background Knowledge 223

Principle 4: Teach Words in Prereading Activities to Activate Knowledge and Use Them in Postreading

Discussion, Response, and Retelling 224

Principle 5: Teach Words Systematically and in Depth 225

Principle 6: Awaken Interest in and Enthusiasm for Words 226

Best Practice: Strategies for Vocabulary and Concept Development 227

Relating Experiences to Vocabulary Learning 228

Using Context for Vocabulary Growth 228

Developing Word Meanings 229

Synonyms 229

Antonyms 230

Words with Multiple Meanings 231

Classifying and Categorizing Words 231

Word Sorts 232

Categorization 233

Concept Circles 233

Semantic Mapping 234

Analogies 235

Paired-Word Sentence Generation 237

Developing Word Meanings Through Stories and Writing 237

Semantic Analysis to Writing 238

Predictogram 240

Developing Independence in Vocabulary Learning 240

Dictionary Usage 241

Self-Selection Strategy 242

Word Knowledge Rating 242

RTI for Struggling Readers 243

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Vocabulary

Development? 244

Summary 244

Teacher Action Research 245

Through the Lens of the Common Core 245

9 Comprehending Narrative Text 246

Developing Readers’ Awareness of Story Structure 248

Elements in a Story 249

Mapping a Story for Instructional Purposes 249

Building a Schema for Stories 251

Read, Tell, and Perform Stories in Class 251

Show Relationships Between Story Parts 251

Reinforce Story Knowledge Through Instructional Activities 251

Scaffolding the Development and Teaching of Reading Comprehension Strategies 254

Active Comprehension and Asking Questions 255

Reciprocal Questioning (ReQuest) 258

Question–Answer Relationships (QARs) 259

Questioning the Author (QtA) 260

Close Reading 263

Reciprocal Teaching 265

Think-Alouds 265

Guiding Interactions Between Reader and Text 267

Directed Reading–Thinking Activity 267

Discussion Webs 268

Text Connections 270

Text-to-Self 270

Text-to-Text 270

Text-to-World 270

Technology and Twenty-First-Century Reading Comprehension Skills 271

RTI for Struggling Readers 272

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Reading Comprehension? 273

Summary 274

Teacher Action Research 274

Through the Lens of the Common Core 274

10 Comprehending Informational Text 275

What Is Informational Text, and What Makes It Challenging? 279

Factors in Judging the Difficulty of Textbooks and Other Informational Text 281

How Difficult Is the Text to Understand? 281

How Usable Is the Informational Text? 281

How Interesting Is the Informational Text? 282

Readability and Text Complexity 283

Organizing Informational Text Instruction 284

Informational Text Circles 284

Jigsaw 285

Jigsaw Strategy in an Elementary Classroom 286

Idea Sketches 287

Sticky-Note Folders 288

Using Literature and Nonfiction Trade Books Across the Curriculum 289

Benefits of Using Literature and Nonfiction Trade Books 290

Intense Involvement 291

Schema Building 291

Abilities and Interests 291

Vocabulary Building 292

Instructional Strategies for Engaging Students in Reading Informational Text Prior to Reading 293

Determining the Structure of Informational Text 293

Frame of Reference 295

Skimming 296

Organizers 296

Anticipation Guides 296

Brainstorming 297

Extending Content Learning Through Reading and Writing 298

Close Reading 298

Focus on Close Reading 298

KWL 299

Point-of-View Guides 300

Idea Circles 302

Curriculum-Based Reader’s Theater 302

Using Think-Alouds 303

Digital Literacy 305

Informational Text and the Internet 306

Internet Inquiry 306

Online Reading Comprehension Skills 307

RTI for Struggling Readers 307

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Content Area Texts? 308

Summary 309

Teacher Action Research 309

Through the Lens of the Common Core 310

11 Reading–Writing Connections 311

Relationships Between Reading and Writing 313

The Writing–Spelling Connection 314

Invented Spelling 314

Later Developmental Spelling Phases 315

Creating Environments for Reading and Writing 315

Encouraging Classroom Writing 316

Connecting Reading and Writing 318

Using Journals (and E-Mail Correspondence) for Written Conversation 319

Dialogue Journals 319

Buddy Journals 320

Electronic Mail (E-Mail) Conversations 320

Using Journals to Explore Texts 320

Double-Entry Journals 321

Reading Journals 323

Response Journals 323

Alternative Strategies That Motivate Students to Write 324

Gathering Ideas 324

Multigenre Projects 325

Writing Nonfiction 325

Plot Scaffolds 325

Organizing Writing Instruction 327

The Writing Process 327

Brainstorming 328

Drafting 328

Revising 328

Editing 329

Publishing 329

The Qualities of Exemplary Writing 331

The Writing Workshop 333

A Day in the Life of Our Writing Workshop 335

Guided Writing Instruction 335

Reading–Writing–Technology Connections 336

Electronic Text Production and Publishing 336

Online Communications 337

Online Resources for Writing 337

RTI for Struggling Readers 339

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Reading–Writing Connections? 339

Summary 340

Teacher Action Research 340

Through the Lens of the Common Core 341

12 Bringing Children and Text Together 342

Supporting a Community of Readers 344

Surrounding Children with Text 347

Selecting a Classroom Collection of Books 347

Choosing Classroom Texts 348

Determining Good Text 349

Text with Multicultural Perspectives 350

Designing the Classroom Library 351

Listening to Text 352

Choosing Texts to Read Aloud 352

Preparing to Read Aloud 353

Setting the Mood 353

Introducing the Story 354

Activities After Reading Aloud 354

Storytelling 354

Selecting the Story to Tell 354

Preparing a Story for Telling 355

Helping Students Select Books 356

Organizing for Text-Based Instruction 357

Core Books 357

Literature Units 358

Literature Circles 358

Student-Led Literature Circles: How and What to Share 359

Adapting Literature Circles for the

Primary Grades 360

Media Literacy 360

Integration of the Internet 361

Encouraging Responses to Text 362

Sparking Discussion with Book-Talks 364

Engaging in Free Response 364

Exploring Response Options in Literature Journals 365

RTI for Struggling Readers 366

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Text? 367

Summary 367

Teacher Action Research 368

Through the Lens of the Common Core 368

13 Instructional Materials 369

Basal Readers 372

A Look Back 372

Anatomy of Basal Readers 373

Student Books 374

Leveled Readers 374

Teacher’s Editions 374

Workbooks 375

Assessments 375

Technology and Online Learning 375

Intervention 376

Making Instructional Decisions with Basals 376

Trade Books 378

The Case for Trade Books 378

Leveling Trade Books 379

Technology 379

Electronic Books 381

Online Games 382

Online Word Processors 382

Apps 382

Evaluating Reading Materials 383

RTI for Struggling Readers 386

What About: Standards, Assessment, and Instructional Materials? 387

Summary 387

Teacher Action Research 387

Through the Lens of the Common Core 388

Appendix A Beliefs About Reading Interview 389

Appendix B Text and Phonics 394

Appendix C Recommended Books for

Multicultural Reading Experiences 395

Glossary 401

References 408

Name Index 428

Subject Index 433

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