Readings for Writers (with 2016 MLA Update Card) / Edition 15 available in Paperback
From helping you find your voice to guiding you on the latest MLA and APA documentation guidelines, READINGS FOR WRITERS is designed to help you become a more successful writer. Throughout the text, the authors offer helpful commentary, practical tips and suggestions, real student essays, and other writing tools that you can use for any assignment. But even more importantly, they present over 70 readings from a variety of genres and authors that will inspire and inform your writing as you learn what good writing is, and how to create it on your own. Each student text is packaged with a free Cengage Essential Reference Card to the MLA HANDBOOK, Eighth Edition.
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About the Author
Born in Belgium, the daughter of an American minister, Jo Ray McCuen-Metherell had moved from Brussels to Paris to Bern, Switzerland, by the time she was seven years old. In Bern, she attended the Freies Gymnasium and spoke not only fluent French and German but also English, which was the language spoken to her by her American parents. After enduring World War II, Jo Ray's parents sent her and her brother to Pacific Union College (in the Napa Valley), where Jo Ray received a B. A. in English. After teaching English and French in high school for several years, Jo Ray started to take night classes at the University of Southern California in order to earn an M.A. and Ph.D., which would allow her to teach in college. While working on her doctorate, she was first hired to teach English at Glendale Community College and later to serve as Dean of the Evening College. A chance meeting in 1973 with Anthony C. Winkler, a successful novelist, led to a literary partnership that has produced 15 coauthored textbooks used at colleges and universities across the United States.
Born in Kingston, Jamaica West Indies, Anthony C. Winkler was educated in Jamaica at Excelsior College, Mount Alvernia Academy, and Cornwall College, the last two being in Montego Bay. He was also educated at Citrus Community College, Glendora, California. Winkler taught briefly at Pasadena City College and for a year at Moneague Teachers College in Saint Anne, Jamaica, an experience chronicled in GOING HOME TO TEACH (1995). From 1968 to 1975 Winkler had sales territories as a bookman for Appleton Century Crofts textbook publishers, and later for Scott, Foresman. In 1969 he decided he could write textbooks as well as anyone and through a chance meeting with the sales representative of another company, he submitted the manuscript POETRY AS SYSTEM and was offered a contract for its publication. Eventually, he met Jo Ray McCuen-Metherell and the two became textbook writers and collaborators. Over the years they have produced more than a dozen textbooks, most on rhetoric and writing. In addition to Winkler's textbooks, his body of work includes, among other books: THE PAINTED CANOE (novel, 1983); THE LUNATIC (novel, 1987); THE GREAT YACHT RACE (novel, 1992); DOG WAR (novel, 2006); TRUST THE DARKNESS: MY LIFE AS A WRITER (autobiography, 2008); THE BURGLARY (play, premiered in Toronto in 2005); THE LUNATIC (movie, filmed in 1991); THE ANNIHILATION OF FISH (movie, 1999); and BOB MARLEY, AN INTIMATE PORTRAIT BY HIS MOTHER (biography, 1996, with Cedella Booker).
Table of Contents
Part I: READING AND WRITING: FROM READING TO WRITING. 1. Reading Critically. Kinds of Reading. Steps to Critical Reading. Read Actively. Demystify the Writer. Understand What You Read. Imagine an Opposing Point of View for All Opinions. Look for Biases and Hidden Assumptions. Separate Emotion from Fact. If the Issue Is New to You, Look up the Facts. Use Insights from One Subject to Illuminate or Correct Another. Evaluate the Evidence. Ponder the Values behind a Claim. Recognize Logical Fallacies. Don''t Be Seduced by Bogus Claims. Annotate Your Reading. Finally, Be Sure You Understand the Writer's Opening Context. Answers to Critical Reading Questions on Andy Rooney. 2. Rhetoric: The Art of Persuasion. Road Map to Rhetoric. Grammar and Rhetoric. The Importance of Good Grammar. Letting the Habits of Literate Writers Be the Final Referee. Exercises. The Importance of Rhetoric. Audience and Purpose. The Internal Reader/Editor. Levels of English. Writing as a Process. Writing about Visual Images. Writing on Social Networks. Advice. What-and How-to Write When You Have No Time to Write / Donald Murray. Examples. I Have a Dream / Martin Luther King, Jr. Letter to Horace Greeley / Abraham Lincoln. Chapter Writing Assignments. Pointer from a Pro: Write Often. Real-Life Student Writing. Email from Samoa. 3. Synthesis: Incorporating Outside Sources. Road Map to Synthesis. Building Blocks of Incorporating Outside Sources. Paraphrase. Exercises. Summary. Exercises. Quotation. Exercises. Guidelines for Effectively Synthesizing Outside Sources. Guidelines for Thinking and Reading Critically. Guidelines for Improving Your Use of Outside Sources. Writers at Work: Strategies for Incorporating Outside Sources. Writers at Work: Using Paraphrase and Summary. Writers at Work: Using Quotation. Chapter Writing Assignment: Writing a Synthesis Essay. Sources. The Death of Horatio Alger / Paul Krugman. By Our Own Bootstraps / W. Michael Cox and Richard Alm. Long Live the American Dream / Shikha Dalmia. Essay Prompts. Suggestions for Additional Reading. 4. The Writer's Voice. Road Map to Writer's Voice. Why Did the Chicken Cross the Road? Vocabulary. Syntax. Attitude. Exercises. Advice. Tone: The Writers'' Voice in the Reader's Mind / Mort Castle. Examples. Salvation / Langston Hughes. Parkinson's Disease and the Dream Bear / Anthony C. Winkler. Chapter Writing Assignments. Real-Life Student Writing. A Thank-You Note to an Aunt. 5. The Writer's Thesis. Road Map to Thesis. Finding Your Thesis. Key Words in the Thesis. Characteristics of a Good Thesis. Nine Errors to Avoid in Composing a Thesis. The Explicit Versus the Implicit Thesis. Exercises. Advice. The Thesis / Sheridan Baker. Examples. Remarks on the Life of Sacco and on His Own Life and Execution / Bartolomeo Vanzetti. A Good Man is Hard to Find / Flannery O''Connor. Chapter Writing Assignments. Real-Life Student Writing. A Eulogy to a Friend Killed in a Car Wreck. 6. Organizing Ideas. Road Map to Organizing. Organizing the Short Essay. Organizing the Long Essay. Planning by Listing Supporting Materials. Organizing with a Formal Outline. Exercises. Advice. Write to Be Understood / Jim Staylor. Examples. Rules for Aging / Roger Rosenblatt. That Time of Year (Sonnet 73) / William Shakespeare. Chapter Writing Assignments. Real-Life Student Writing. Note from a Graduate Student to a Department Secretary. 7. Developing Good Paragraphs. Road Map to Paragraphs. Parts of the Paragraph. Supporting Details. Topic Sentence Developed over More Than One Paragraph. Position of the Topic Sentence. Paragraph Patterns. Characteristics of a Well-designed Paragraph. Writing Your Own Paragraphs. Exercises. Advice. Writing Successful Paragraphs / A. M. Tibbetts and Charlene Tibbetts. Examples. Paragraphs with the Topic Sentence at the Beginning. From the Lessons of the Past / Edith Hamilton. Paragraphs with the Topic Sentence at the End. Man against Darkness / W. T. Stace. Chapter Writing Assignments. Real-Life Student Writing. Letter of Application to an Honors Program. Part II: PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT. Patterns of Development for the Subject "Guilt." 8. Narration. Road Map to Narration. What Narration Does. When to Use Narration. How to Write a Narrative. Warming Up to Write a Narrative. Examples.'My Name Is Margaret / Maya Angelou. Shame / Dick Gregory. Issue for Critical Thinking and Debate: Terrorism. My Accidental Jihad / Krista Bremer. The Real War / Thomas L. Friedman. Punctuation Workshop: The Period. Student Corner. Terrorism: America in Fear / Jeffrey Metherell. How I Write. My Writing Tip. Chapter Writing Assignments. Image Gallery Writing Assignment. Pointer from a Pro: Be Concise. 9. Description. Road Map to Description. What Description Does. When to Use Description. How to Write a Description. Warming Up to Write a Description. Examples. The Libido for the Ugly / H. L. Mencken. Hell / James Joyce. Issue for Critical Thinking and Debate: Self- Image. Body Image / Cindy Maynard. Beauty: When the Other Dancer Is the Self / Alice Walker. Punctuation Workshop: The Comma. Student Corner. Body Modification-Think about It! / Shelley Taylor. How I Write. My Writing Tip. Chapter Writing Assignments. Pointer from a Pro: Write about the Familiar. 10. Process Analysis. Road Map to Process Analysis. What Process Analysis Does. When to Use Process Analysis. How to Write a Process Analysis. Warming Up to Write a Process Analysis. Examples. My Strangled Speech / Dan Slater. Hunting Octopus in the Gilbert Islands / Sir Arthur Grimble. Issue for Critical Thinking and Debate: Bullying. 10. Common Myths and Misconceptions about Bullying / Sherri M. Gordon. The Three Little Pigs and the Big Bad Wolf / Anonymous. Punctuation Workshop: The Semicolon. Student Corner. Bullied / Gunnar Neuman. How I Write. My Writing Tip. Chapter Writing Assignments. Image Gallery Writing Assignment. Pointer from a Pro: Be Sincere. 11. Illustration/Exemplification. Road Map to Illustration/Exemplification. What Illustration/Exemplification Does. When to Use Illustration. How to Use Illustration. Warming Up to Write an Illustration. Examples. The Myth of the Latin Woman: I Just Met a Girl Named Maria / Judith Ortiz Cofer. "Mirror, Mirror, on the Wall…" / John Leo. Issue for Critical Thinking and Debate: Drugs and Society. How We Get Addicted / Michael D. Lemonick. Have We Lost the War on Drugs' / Gary S. Becker and Kevin M. Murphy. Punctuation Workshop: The Dash. Student Corner. Solving the Drug Problem in the United States / Jordan Dubini. How I Write. My Writing Tip. Chapter Writing Assignments. Image Gallery Writing Assignment. Pointer from a Pro: Be Clear. 12. Definition. Road Map to Definition. What Definition Does. When to Use Definition. How to Use Definition. Warming Up to Write a Definition. Examples. Entropy / K. C. Cole. America's Invisibly Wounded Soldiers / David Finkel. Issue for Critical Thinking and Debate: Immigration. Illegal Immigrants Are Bolstering Social Security with Billions / Eduardo Porter. Wide-open Spaces / Bill Bryson. Punctuation Workshop: The Apostrophe. Student Corner. Immigrants in America / Dave Herman. How I Write My Writing Tip. Chapter Writing Assignments. Image Gallery Writing Assignment. Pointer from a Pro: Let Your Writing Percolate. 13. Comparison/Contrast. Road Map to Comparison/Contrast. What Comparison/Contrast Does When to Use Comparison/Contrast. How to Use Comparison/Contrast. Warming Up to Write a Comparison/Contrast. Examples. Real Work / Rick Bragg. Grant and Lee: A Study in Contrasts / Bruce Catton. Issue for Critical Thinking and Debate: Online Dating. The Truth about Online Dating / Robert Epstein. Evaluating Internet Dating / Tim Daughtry. Punctuation Workshop: The Question Mark. Student Corner. "OMGILY2!!" Online Dating Is at Your Own Risk / Kindra M. Neuman. How I Write. My Writing Tip. Chapter Writing Assignments. Image Gallery Writing Assignment. Pointer from a Pro: Conquer Writer's Block. 14. Division/Classification. Road Map to Division/Classification. What Division/Classification Does. When to Use Division/Classification. How to Use Division/Classification. Warming Up to Write a Division/Classification. Examples. The Six Stages of E-Mail / Nora Ephron. Kinds of Discipline / John Holt. Issue for Critical Thinking and Debate: Racism. Warriors Don''t Cry / Melba Patillo Beals. Incidents with White People / Sarah L . and A . Elizabeth Delany. Punctuation Workshop: The Colon. Student Corner. Color of Their Skin AND Content of Their Character / Carrie Moore. How I Write. My Writing Tip. Chapter Writing Assignments. Image Gallery Writing Assignment. Pointer from a Pro: Use Definite, Specific, Concrete Language. 15. Causal Analysis. Road Map to Causal Analysis. What Causal Analysis Does. When to Use Causal Analysis How to Use Causal Analysis. Warming Up to Write a Causal Analysis. Examples. A Peaceful Woman Explains Why She Carries a Gun / Linda M. Hasselstrom. Bricklayer's Boy / Alfred Lubrano. Issue for Critical Thinking and Debate: The Status of Women. The New Feminism / Kate Gubata. The Farce of Feminism / Rebecca E. Rubins. Punctuation Workshop: The Exclamation Point. Student Corner. "Woman" Is a Noun / Paula Rewa. How I Write. My Writing Tip. Chapter Writing Assignments. Image Gallery Writing Assignment. Pointer from a Pro: Scrap Adverbs and Adjectives. 16. Argumentation and Persuasion. Road Map to Argumentation and Persuasion. What Argumentation and Persuasion Do. When to Use Argumentation and Persuasion. How to Use Argumentation and Persuasion. Warming Up to Write an Argument. Examples. Why Don''t We Complain? / William F. Buckley, Jr. A Modest Proposal / Jonathan Swift. Issue for Critical Thinking and Debate: Homelessness.'Homeless / Anna Quindlen. The Homeless Lack a Political Voice, But Not American Ideals / Matt Lynch. Punctuation Workshop: Quotation Marks. Student Corner. People Out on a Limb / Antoinette Poodt. How I Write. My Writing Tip. Chapter Writing Assignments. Image Gallery Writing Assignment. Pointer from a Pro: Read Well, Write Well. 17. Combining the Modes. Road Map to the Modes. What Combining the Modes Does. When to Combine the Modes. How to Use Combined Modes. Examples. Will Spelling Count' / Jack Connor. Once More to the Lake / E. B. White. Issue for Critical Thinking and Debate: The New Technology. No Technology? No Problem / Eric Brende. Beware the Apps! / Lacreta Scott. Punctuation Workshop: Using Other Punctuation with Quotation Marks. Student Corner. Thoughts about the Internet / Charlie Sorensen. How I Write. My Writing Tip. Chapter Writing Assignments. Image Gallery Writing Assignment. Pointer from a Pro: Avoid Noun Clusters. Part III: REWRITING YOUR WRITING. The Editing Booth. Revising. Editing. Rule 1: Make Your Title Descriptive. Rule 2: Begin with a Simple Sentence. Rule 3: Prune Deadwood. Rule 4: Do Not Overexplain. Rule 5: Be Specific. Rule 6: Avoid Trite Expressions. Rule 7: Use the Active Voice. Rule 8: Make Your Statements Positive. Rule 9: Keep to One Tense. Rule 10: Place Key Words at the Beginning or End of a Sentence. Rule 11: Prune Multiple Ofs. Rule 12: Break Up Noun Clusters. Rule 13: Use Exclamation Points Sparingly. Rule 14: Vary Your Sentences. Rule 15: Keep Your Point of View Consistent. Rule 16: Use Standard Words. Rule 17: End with Impact. Editing an Actual Essay. Part IV: THE RESEARCH PAPER. Why English Instructors Assign Research Papers. How to Choose Your Topic. How to Narrow Your Subject. The Process of Writing the Paper. Preparing "Works Cited" or "References." Writing the Final Copy. Annotated Student Research Paper: Modern Language Association (MLA) Style. A Victory for Readers? Copyright Law and Google Book Search / Nick Penaranda. Annotated Student Research Paper: American Psychological Association (APA) Style. Development of a Scale to Detect Sexual Harassers: The Potential Harasser Scale (PHS) / Leanne M. Masden and Rebecca B. Winkler. Exercises. Part IV: SUGGESTIONS FOR WRITING. Glossary. Index.