The Real Chinaman

The Real Chinaman

by Chester Holcombe

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Overview

The Real Chinaman by Chester Holcombe

A very detailed examination (originally published in 1895) through Western eyes of Chinese culture, government, policies, public opinion, society, Chinese home life, superstitions, economics, laws, courts of law, philosophies, government, international events, foreign commerce and military actions, opium legislation and cultural interfaces, the Boxer Rebellion, Chinese character evaluations, officials and ordinary people, literature and knowledge, politics, missionary efforts, the Chinese military, diplomacy, etiquette, ancient to modern Chinese history, current reforms, and the Chinese financial system.

Chester Holcombe was for many years Interpreter, Secretary of Legation, and Acting Minister of the United States at Peking

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780341996217
Publisher: Franklin Classics
Publication date: 10/10/2018
Pages: 378
Product dimensions: 6.14(w) x 9.21(h) x 0.78(d)

Table of Contents

Chapter I.Introductory1
Recent acquaintance of China with Western nations1
Date of first treaty2
Contrast between the Oriental and Occidental world2
Chinese seclusion3
Ignorance regarding foreigners4
The Chinese Empire and surrounding kingdoms5
Position of Japan6
The so-called suzerainty of China8
Exact nature of relationship9
The opium war10
Mutual misunderstanding inevitable14
Contrast between China and Japan17
Discrimination against China and its results18
Students at Annapolis and West Point19
Prince Kung22
Li Hung Chang24
No real opposition to the reigning family among Chinese28
Chapter II.The Government of China29
Peculiarities of the governmental system31
Its antiquity31
Satisfies the people32
It is pure paternalism33
Filial obedience and parental responsibility enforced by law34
The family the unit of government36
The Emperor36
Laws are comparatively mild and humane40
Rewards and penalties41
Two theories regarding the system42
Filial piety43
Influence of Confucius45
Officials chosen from among the people45
Similarity between Chinese form of choosing officers and that followed in the United States47
Chapter III.The Language49
Its antiquity49
Immense but uncertain number of characters50
Mode of writing and printing51
Characters were originally outlines of objects which they represented54
Modes of combination illustrated55
Idiomatic constructions56
Grammar of Chinese57
Chinese efforts to learn English58
Words lacking in the language60
Difficulties of pronunciation62
Sounds cannot be represented by any alphabet63
Aspirated and unaspirated consonants64
Tone has equal part with sound in determining the meaning65
Four tones recognized in standard Chinese67
Amusing blunders69
Local dialects70
Pidgin English71
Chapter IV.Chinese Home Life73
Does not begin with marriage73
Lot of young married women74
Motherhood a badge of honor75
Polygamy allowed, but monogamy the rule77
Influence of women78
Ties of locality80
Chinese not natural colonists83
Ancestral worship86
Filial obedience89
Coffins presented to parents90
Chapter V.Chinese Social Life93
Little time given to recreation93
An overworked Chinese statesman93
Peculiar model of Oriental society97
Husband and wife may not ride in the same vehicle99
Chinese students in America100
Social amusements of Chinese ladies102
Women of the poorer classes103
Oriental ideas of dignity104
Etiquette interferes with social life105
Chinese fond of argument107
Legend of the fox108
Chinese reception-rooms109
Dinnergiving between Occidentals and Orientals110
The servant of the Corean minister113
Chapter VI.Chinese Religions116
Confucius not the founder of a religion116
He was a sage, not a devotee117
Materialism is the basis of Confucianism118
Temple of Heaven119
Respect for education and literature121
Worship of ancestors123
What is the practical idea involved123
Chinese belief in a future state124
Ancestral tablet125
All Chinese are Confucianists126
Taoism126
Its theory and practice127
Buddhism128
Method of worship130
Thibetan archbishop131
Living Buddhas131
Ideas borrowed from Christianity132
Mendicant priests135
A pilgrimage to Wu Tai Shan139
Chinese Government tolerant142
Mohammedans and Jews in China143
Chapter VII.Chinese Superstitions144
Saturated with superstitious notions144
They are separate from religious belief145
Fing Shui145
Interfered with burial of an emperor149
Chinese astrologers152
Methods of placating local spirits154
The use of pagodas156
Lucky and unlucky days157
Prayer at the hole of a fox158
Prayers for rain159
Ling Shih Hsien160
Old trees161
Inhumanity as a fruit of superstition165
Infanticide166
Treatment of young children when ill167
Two cases168
Chapter VIII.Chinese Queues171
Peculiarities of Oriental hair171
Admiration of the Occidental beard172
Symbol of Chinese manhood174
How the queue was introduced into China174
It is a badge of respectability178
Etiquette of the queue178
"Tail-cutting,"181
Chinese belief in magic182
Official proclamations giving preventives for "tail-cutting,"183
One genuine case184
Chapter IX.Chinese Courts of Law192
Primitive hall of justice192
Antiquity of the judicial system193
The Censorate193
The Chinese Code195
Cases are decided by precedents197
Dangerous latitude allowed to magistrates198
Efforts to secure confession201
Antiquated processes202
Scene in a Chinese court203
Chinese prisons205
Modes of punishment206
Forms of death penalty207
The white silken cord208
Etiquette of a Chinese court209
A fearful case of cruelty210
Chapter X.Officials and People214
The Chinaman a philosopher214
Official salaries216
Illegal and extra-legal fines219
Guards against injustice and extortion223
Civil-service regulations224
Sale of titles and official honors225
Power of public opinion227
The literati227
Dangerous exercise of their power229
The Tientsin massacre230
Mandarin boots233
Interesting case of resistance to oppression234
Chapter XI.Education and Literature237
Object of study237
Chinese ambition237
High moral tone of educational works238
Narrow limits of system243
Description of course of study244
Schools and their arrangements246
Method of study247
High intellectual ability of the Chinese248
The Chinese students in America248
Illiteracy in China249
System of government examinations originated 1900 years ago250
Proscribed classes250
Degrees conferred253
Regulations for the examinations254
Chapter XII.Etiquette and Ceremony261
Politeness universal261
Etiquette complicated and tedious262
Pompous and bombastic titles263
Foreign relations vexed by questions of etiquette264
The audience question267
The etiquette of a cup of tea269
Importance of familiarity with Oriental forms270
A Mexican saddle and sombrero in China271
Tedious formali ties evaded273
Lies of courtesy274
Chinese habit of repression277
Quaint custom among Pekingese279
Chapter XIII.Merchants and Tricks of Trade286
Grades of Chinese society286
Standing of Chinese merchants287
Merchants study their customers291
Various prices for various customers294
The dicker295
No standard of weight or measure298
Exact book-keeping impossible300
Co-operative system301
The Chinese "squeeze,"301
Chinese servants305
Chapter XIV.The Poor in China310
Intense poverty of the Chinese masses310
Average prices paid for labor311
Food of common people312
Experiences at Chinese inns313
Clothing316
The house319
The labor problem in China320
Economy of the Chinese322
Government allows begging323
The queen of the beggars of Peking327
Incidents328
Chapter XV.Chinese Financial System330
The Chinese money unit330
Spanish and Mexican dollars331
Varying and various ounce weights332
Form of silver bullion used334
Tests of fineness334
Chinese cash336
Attempts to tamper with the currency339
Doubling cash341
Chinese banks343
Taxation346
Uncertainty regarding total revenue347
Taxes payable in kind347
Modes of remittance348
Needs of reform349

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