Real Sound Synthesis for Interactive Applications

Real Sound Synthesis for Interactive Applications

by Perry R. Cook
5.0 3
ISBN-10:
1568811683
ISBN-13:
9781568811680
Pub. Date:
07/01/2002
Publisher:
Taylor & Francis

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Overview

Real Sound Synthesis for Interactive Applications

Virtual environments such as games and animated and "real" movies require realistic sound effects that can be integrated by computer synthesis. The book emphasizes physical modeling of sound and focuses on real-world interactive sound effects. It is intended for game developers, graphics programmers, developers of virtual reality systems and training simulators, and others who want to learn about computational sound. It is written at an introductory level with mathematical foundations provided in appendices.

Links to code examples and sound files can be found on the Downloads/Updates tab.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781568811680
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Publication date: 07/01/2002
Edition description: BOOK & CD
Pages: 263
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.06(h) x (d)

Table of Contents

Introductionxi
1.Digital Audio Signals1
1.0Introduction1
1.1Digital Audio Signals1
1.2Sampling and Aliasing2
1.3Quantization4
1.4Resampling and Interpolation5
1.5Digital Audio Compression7
1.6Conclusion9
2.Sampling (Wavetable) Synthesis11
2.0Introduction11
2.1Wavetable Synthesis11
2.2Concatenative Speech Synthesis13
2.3Manipulating PCM14
2.4Let's Pause and Think Here18
3.Digital Filters21
3.0Introduction21
3.1Linear Systems, LTI Systems, Convolution21
3.2Digital Filters24
3.3FIR Filters24
3.4IIR Filters26
3.5The General Filter Form26
3.6The Z Transform27
3.7The Transfer Function28
3.8Zeroes and Poles29
3.9First Order One-Zero and One-Pole Filters29
3.10The Second Order Pole/Zero (BiQuad) Filter31
3.11A Little on Filter Topologies34
3.12Conclusion36
4.Modal Synthesis39
4.0Introduction39
4.1A Simple Mechanical System39
4.2Solution of the Mass/Spring/Damper System41
4.3Boundary Conditions and Solutions43
4.4Sinusoidal Additive Synthesis45
4.5Filter-Based Modal Synthesis46
4.6Residual Extraction and Resynthesis48
4.7Conclusion50
5.The Fourier Transform51
5.0Introduction51
5.1The Frequency Domain Spectrum52
5.2The Fourier Series52
5.3The Discrete Fourier Transform53
5.4Orthogonality and Uniqueness of the DFT55
5.5Convolution with the DFT and the FFT55
5.6Some Fourier Transform Applications57
5.7The Short-Time Fourier Transform60
5.8Conclusions61
6.Spectral Modeling and Additive Synthesis63
6.0Introduction63
6.1Types of Spectra63
6.2Spectral Modeling68
6.3Sines Plus Noise Plus Transients71
6.4Spectra in Time72
6.5Conclusion74
7.Subband Vocoders and Filterbanks75
7.0Introduction75
7.1Subband Decomposition of Audio75
7.2The Channel Vocoder78
7.3The Cross-Synthesizing Channel Vocoder80
7.4.The Phase Vocoder81
7.5Conclusions82
8.Subtractive Synthesis and LPC85
8.0Introduction85
8.1Subtractive Synthesis85
8.2Resonance-Factored (Formant) Synthesis87
8.3Linear Prediction88
8.4LPC Speech Examples90
8.5LPC for Nonspeech and Real-World Sounds92
8.6LPC and Physics94
8.7Conclusions94
9.Strings and Bars97
9.0Introduction97
9.1The Ideal String97
9.2Refining the Ideal String101
9.3Weak Stiffness103
9.4Really Stiff Structures: Bars105
9.5Conclusions106
10.Nonlinearity, Waveshaping, FM109
10.0Introduction109
10.1Simple Physical Nonlinearity109
10.2Simulating Physical Nonlinearity113
10.3Nonlinear Wave Synthesis by Lookup Table114
10.4Conclusions119
11.Tubes and Air Cavities121
11.0Introduction121
11.1The Ideal Acoustic Tube121
11.2Building a Simple Clarinet122
11.3Resonance in Air Cavities124
11.4Conclusions128
12.Two and Three Dimensions131
12.0Introduction131
12.1Membranes and Plates, Mass/Spring Models131
12.2Three-Dimensional Structures136
12.3Banded Waveguides in Higher Dimensions140
12.4Spatial Modes in Complex Geometries143
12.5Conclusions146
13.FOFs, Wavelets, and Particles149
13.0Introduction149
13.1Formants in the Time Domain: FOFs149
13.2Wavelets152
13.3Granular Synthesis155
13.4Particle Models155
13.5Conclusions167
14.Exciting and Controlling Sound Models169
14.0Introduction169
14.1Plucking and Striking169
14.2Friction174
14.3Controlling Synthesis Parameters183
14.4Controllers187
14.5Conclusions189
15.Walking Synthesis: A Complete System191
15.0Introduction191
15.1Overall Architecture of the System191
15.2Event Analysis192
15.3Spectral Analysis194
15.4Statistical Modeling and Estimation194
15.5Testing on Real Sounds197
15.6Parametric Resynthesis199
15.7Conclusion199
16.Examples, Systems, and Applications201
16.0Introduction201
16.1Auditory Display: Real-Time Multimodal User Interfaces201
16.2Auditory Display: Sonification202
16.3Digital Foley Production Workstation/Stage205
16.4Virtual and Augmented Reality206
16.5Computer Music and Interactive Art206
16.6Animation and Gaming207
16.7The Future209
A.DFT, Convolution, and Transform Properties211
A.1Orthogonality of the Fourier Transform Kernel211
A.2Uniqueness of the Fourier Transform212
A.3Convolution213
A.4Convolution and the DFT214
A.5A Few Useful DFT Properties and Theorems216
B.The Ideal String221
B.1The Ideal String221
C.Acoustic Tubes225
C.1The Ideal Acoustic Tube225
C.2D'Alembert Solution to the Acoustic Tube Equation227
C.3Relating Pressure and Velocity in Acoustic Tubes227
C.4The Acoustic Tube With Varying Cross-Sectional Area228
C.5An Acoustic Tube Network230
D.Sound Examples and Code on CD/CDROM233
D.1Sound Examples233
D.2Source Code and Other Materials on CDROM Data Segment236
E.The Synthesis Toolkit in C++239
E.1What is the Synthesis Toolkit?239
E.2A Brief History of the Development of The Synthesis ToolKit241
E.3Synthesizing Sound in Real Time241
E.4Non-Real-Time Soundfile Synthesis243
E.5An Example Instrument: Blown Bottle244
E.6Real-Time Synthesis Control245
E.7Classes and Instruments246
E.8Conclusions248
Index249

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Real Sound Synthesis for Interactive Applications 5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 3 reviews.
Guest More than 1 year ago
This book is cool . Buy it for the CDROM alone if you must -- the STK is an incredible code resource. Having it bundled with an explanatory text is just plain fun. Physical modeling and waveguide synthesis is waaay too underused in contemporary computer music. Maybe this book will help to change this state of affairs. Digital Foley! yeah! The diagrams are really cute, too.
Guest More than 1 year ago
Here is an ideal book for any serious programmer who is interested in sound and who wants to write real-time programs that produce natural sounding sounds (like footsteps or musical instruments) that respond instantly to the user's control. Perry Cook has done an outstanding job of assembling, organizing, and explaining all of the most effective ways of doing this job. His primary focus is on physical modeling -- writing procedures that mimic the essential mechanisms by which sounds are produced in nature. In 16 well-crafted and remarkably lucid chapters, he leads you through the basics of digital filtering to the cutting-edge techniques for sound synthesis. All of these techniques depend on digital signal processing. DSP is based on a small number of abstract concepts (sampling, convolution, filtering, windowing, spectral analysis) that are very powerful and not all that hard to employ, but forbidding to the mathematically challenged. Although Cook includes the necessary mathematics, he emphasizes what it all means. In addition, he has included a CD-ROM that (a) lets you hear examples of the sounds these procedures produce, and (b) includes a large and well-thought-out set of C++ classes you can use to create your own programs. There are some rough patches. Although I did not spot very many actual errors in the book, certain parts (such as Appendix A) will be a challenge if this is your first encounter with DSP. And don't let the fact that the book is so clearly and entertainingly written make you think that you can master it in a weekend. When you hit material that is new to you, be prepared to read and ponder a sentence at a time. The good news is that your efforts will be richly rewarded. In addition to acquiring the ability to write programs that can generate dynamically-controllable sound, you will gain an understanding of how different musical instruments produce their characteristic sounds, and how these sound-generating mechanisms can be modeled. Highly recommended.
Guest More than 1 year ago
This book is useful, enlightening, and fun. It covers many cutting-edge topics in lucid fashion, topics that can only be found otherwise in academic journals. The computer code (in the book and on the CD-ROM) is an invaluable resource for the ambitious reader, who can actually try out or modify the techniques. The CD-ROM also provides examples of these new techniques in action. Finally, the author's sense of humor comes through often (this is not a stiff, boring book!). As a 'digital-sound-artist' and someone who teaches this stuff at the university level, I highly recommend this book not only to those who want to learn about the most recent work going on in sound synthesis, but to those who want another perspective on more familiar topics (like the basics of PCM, fourier analysis, basic digital filtering, etc....).