The thirty-year period examined was characterized in West Germany by a number of inconsistent trends. While income and consumption levels increased as part of a "silent revolution," poverty also increased, especially during the 1980s. People's lifestyles changed, with less time spent on formal employment and more on household production and recreation. Individualization and pluralization began to dissolve the class structure, and social movements such as feminism and environmentalism gained some influence. Although hostility toward foreigners did not disappear, de facto immigrants were increasingly integrated into society. Satisfaction with life reached a generally high and stable level, although some people expressed an unanticipated degree of boredom. The legitimacy of the political system was not affected by conflicts about income distribution and changing values, and cooperation grew among government, business, and traditional and emerging intermediate groups. Special chapters have been authored by Johann Behrens, Mathias Bös, Bernhard Engel, Renate Hornung-Draus, Heiner Meulemann, Claudia Koch-Arzberger, Jürgen Kohl, Jakob Schissler, Jürgen Schumacher, and Karin Seibel.