Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877

Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877

by Eric Foner
4.5 4

NOOK Book(eBook)

View All Available Formats & Editions
Available on Compatible NOOK Devices and the free NOOK Apps.
Want a NOOK ? Explore Now


Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877 by Eric Foner

Newly Reissued with a New Introduction: From the "preeminent historian of Reconstruction" (New York Times Book Review), a newly updated edition of the prize-winning classic work on the post-Civil War period which shaped modern America.

Eric Foner's "masterful treatment of one of the most complex periods of American history" (New Republic) redefined how the post-Civil War period was viewed.

Reconstruction chronicles the way in which Americans—black and white—responded to the unprecedented changes unleashed by the war and the end of slavery. It addresses the ways in which the emancipated slaves' quest for economic autonomy and equal citizenship shaped the political agenda of Reconstruction; the remodeling of Southern society and the place of planters, merchants, and small farmers within it; the evolution of racial attitudes and patterns of race relations; and the emergence of a national state possessing vastly expanded authority and committed, for a time, to the principle of equal rights for all Americans.

This "smart book of enormous strengths" (Boston Globe) remains the standard work on the wrenching post-Civil War period—an era whose legacy still reverberates in the United States today.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780062035868
Publisher: HarperCollins Publishers
Publication date: 12/13/2011
Format: NOOK Book
Pages: 736
Sales rank: 302,816
File size: 6 MB

About the Author

Eric Foner is DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia University and the author of several books. In 2006 he received the Presidential Award for Outstanding Teaching at Columbia University. He has served as president of the Organization of American Historians, the American Historical Association, and the Society of American Historians. He lives in New York City.

Read an Excerpt

Chapter One

The World the War Made

The Coming of Emancipation

0n January 1, 1863, after a winter storm swept up the east coast of the United States, the sun rose in a cloudless sky over Washington, D.C. At the White House, Abraham Lincoln spent most of the day welcoming guests to the traditional New Year's reception. Finally, in the late afternoon, as he had pledged to do 100 days before, the President retired to his office to sign the Emancipation Proclamation. Excluded from its purview were the 450,000 slaves in Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri (border slave states that remained within the Union), 275,000 in Union-occupied Tennessee, and tens of thousands more in portions of Louisiana and Virginia under the control of federal armies. But, the Proclamation decreed, the remainder of the nation's slave population, well over 3 million men, women, and children, "are and henceforth shall be free."

Throughout the North and the Union-occupied South, January 1 was a day of celebration. An immense gathering, including black and white abolitionist leaders, stood vigil at Boston's Tremont Temple, awaiting word that the Proclamation had been signed. It was nearly midnight when the news arrived; wild cheering followed, and a black preacher led the throng in singing "Sound the loud timbrel o'er Egypt's dark sea, Jehovah hath triumphed, his people are free." At a camp for fugitive slaves in the nation's capital, a black man "testified" about the sale, years before, of his daughter, exclaiming, "Now, no more dat!...Dey can't sell my wife and child any more,bless de Lord!" Farther south, at Beaufort, an enclave of federal control off the South Carolina coast, there were prayers and speeches and the freedmen sang "My Country 'Tis of Thee." To Charlotte Forten, a young black woman who had journeyed from her native Philadelphia to teach the former slaves, "it all a brilliant dream." Even in areas exempted from the Proclamation, blacks celebrated, realizing that if slavery perished in Mississippi and South Carolina, it could hardly survive in Kentucky, Tennessee, and a few parishes of Louisiana.

Nearly two and a half centuries had passed since twenty black men and women were landed in Virginia from a Dutch ship. From this tiny seed had grown the poisoned fruit of plantation slavery, which, in profound and contradictory ways, shaped the course of American development. Even as slavery mocked the ideals of a nation supposedly dedicated to liberty and equality, slave labor played an indispensable part in its rapid growth, expanding westward with the young republic, producing the cotton that fueled the early industrial revolution. In the South, slavery spawned a distinctive regional ruling class (an "aristocracy without nobility" one Southern-born writer called it) and powerfully shaped the economy, race relations, politics, religion, and the law. Its influence was pervasive: "Nothing escaped, nothing and no one." In the North, where slavery had been abolished during and after the American Revolution, emerged abolition, the greatest protest movement of the age. The slavery question divided the nation's churches, sundered political ties between the sections, and finally shattered the bonds of Union. On the principle of opposing the further expansion of slavery, a new political party rose to power in the 1850s, placing in the White House a son of the slave state Kentucky, who had grown to manhood on the free Illinois prairies and believed the United States could not endure forever half slave and half free. In the crisis that followed Lincoln's election, eleven slave states seceded from the Union, precipitating in 1861 the bloodiest war the Western Hemisphere has ever known.

To those who had led the movement for abolition, and to slaves throughout the South, the Emancipation Proclamation not only culminated decades of struggle but evoked Christian visions of resurrection and redemption, of an era of unbounded progress for a nation purged at last of the sin of slavery. Even the staid editors of the New York Times believed it marked a watershed in American life, "an era in the history...of this country and the world." For emancipation meant more than the end of a labor system, more even than the uncompensated liquidation of the nation's largest concentration of private property ("the most stupendous act of sequestration in the history of Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence," as Charles and Mary Beard described it). The demise of slavery inevitably threw open the most basic questions of the polity, economy, and society. Begun to preserve the Union, the Civil War now portended a far-reaching transformation in Southern life and a redefinition of the place of blacks in American society and of the very meaning of freedom in the American republic.

In one sense, however, the Proclamation only confirmed what was already happening on farms and plantations throughout the South. War, it has been said, is the midwife of revolution, and well before 1863 the disintegration of slavery had begun. Whatever politicians and military commanders might decree, slaves saw the war as heralding the longawaited end of bondage. Three years into the conflict, Gen. William T. Sherman encountered a black Georgian who summed up the slaves' understanding of the war from its outset: "He said...he had been looking for the 'angel of the Lord' ever since he was knee-high, and, though we professed to be fighting for the Union, he supposed that slavery was the cause, and that our success was to be his freedom." Based on this conviction, the slaves took actions that propelled a reluctant white America down the road to abolition.

As the Union Army occupied territory on the periphery of the Confederacy, first in Virginia, then in Tennessee, Louisiana, and elsewhere, slaves by the thousands headed for the Union lines. Union enclaves like Fortress Monroe, Beaufort, and New Orleans became havens for runaway slaves and bases for expeditions into the interior that further disrupted the plantation regime. Even in the heart of the Confederacy...

Reconstruction. Copyright © by Eric Foner. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. Available now wherever books are sold.

Table of Contents

Abbreviations Used in Footnotesxiii
Editors' Introductionxv
1.The World the War Made1
The Coming of Emancipation1
The Inner Civil War11
The North's Transformation18
2.Rehearsals for Reconstruction35
Dilemmas of Wartime Reconstruction35
Land and Labor During the Civil War50
The Politics of Emancipation and the End of the War60
3.The Meaning of Freedom77
From Slavery to Freedom78
Building the Black Community88
The Economics of Freedom102
Origins of Black Politics110
Violence and Everyday Life119
4.Ambiguities of Free Labor124
Masters Without Slaves128
The "Misrepresented Bureau"142
The Freedmen's Bureau, Land, and Labor153
Beginnings of Economic Reconstruction170
5.The Failure of Presidential Reconstruction176
Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction176
Launching the South's New Governments185
The Anatomy of Presidential Reconstruction198
The North's Response216
6.The Making of Radical Reconstruction228
The Radical Republicans228
Origins of Civil Rights239
The Fourteenth Amendment251
The Campaign of 1866261
The Coming of Black Suffrage271
7.Blueprints for a Republican South281
The Political Mobilization of the Black Community281
The Republican Coalition291
The North and Radical Reconstruction307
The Constitutional Conventions316
Impeachment and the Election of Grant333
8.Reconstruction: Political and Economic346
Party and Government in the Reconstruction South346
Southern Republicans in Power364
The Gospel of Prosperity379
Patterns of Economic Change392
9.The Challenge of Enforcement412
The New Departure and the First Redemption412
The Ku Klux Klan425
"Power from Without"444
10.The Reconstruction of the North460
The North and the Age of Capital461
The Transformation of Politics469
The Rise of Liberalism488
The Election of 1872499
11.The Politics of Depression512
The Depression and Its Consequences512
Retreat from Reconstruction524
The Waning of Southern Republicanism535
The Crisis of 1875553
12.Redemption and After564
The Centennial Election564
The Electoral Crisis and the End of Reconstruction575
The Redeemers' New South587
Epilogue: "The River Has Its Bend"602
Selected Bibliography615

Customer Reviews

Most Helpful Customer Reviews

See All Customer Reviews

Reconstruction 4.5 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 4 reviews.
tcarstar More than 1 year ago
This book won the Bancroft Prize and Francis Parkman Prize by the Society of American Historians for historical excellence. This book is the benchmark book on Reconstruction. Readers wanting a more accessible read should consider the author's brief history of Reconstruction. Foner recently won the Lincoln Prize for "The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery."
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
A must read for anyone interested in the tumultuous era following the american civil war.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Anonymous More than 1 year ago