Red October: Left-Indigenous Struggles in Modern Bolivia

Red October: Left-Indigenous Struggles in Modern Bolivia

by Jeffery R. Webber

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781608462582
Publisher: Haymarket Books
Publication date: 11/13/2012
Series: Historical Materialism Book Series
Edition description: Reprint
Pages: 376
Product dimensions: 5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.00(d)

About the Author

Jeffery R. Webber, Ph.D. (2009) in Political Science, University of Toronto, is Lecturer in the School of Politics and International relations at Queen Mary, University of London. He is the author of From Rebellion to Reform in Bolivia.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xiii

Acronyms xix

Chapter 1 Politics of Indigenous Resistance and Class-Struggle 1

1.1 Social-movement theory 3

1.2 Liberal institutionalism and neoliberal multiculturalism 11

1.3 Working classes as historical formations 16

1.4 Infrastructure of class-struggle 19

1.5 Social-movement unionism 21

1.6 Defining ethnicity and what it means to be indigenous in Bolivia 21

1.7 Popular cultures of resistance and opposition 24

1.8 Combined-oppositional consciousness 27

1.9 Neoliberalism 30

1.10 The state, crisis, and repression 33

1.11 Structure of the book 36

Chapter 2 Indigenous Insurgency, Working-Class Struggle, and Popular Cultures of Resistance and Opposition, 1781-1964 37

2.1 Late colonialism and early republicanism: silver-capital, the state, and indigenous rebellion 38

2.2 The Federalist War of 1899 and early twentieth century 44

2.2.1 Tin-capital, working-class formation, and indigenous-socialist alliances, 1900-32 46

2.2.2 Racial ideologies of the ruling class 47

2.2.3 The labour-movement 48

2.2.4 Indigenous-peasant resistance: the Chayanta Rebellion, 1927 51

2.3 The Chaco War, left-party formation, revolutionary workers, and indigenous rebels (1932-52) 52

2.3.1 The Great Depression and the Chaco War 52

2.3.2 Military socialism 53

2.3.3 The MNR and radical-left parties 55

2.3.4 Working-class formation 59

2.3.5 Indigenous resistance: the 1945 National Indigenous Congress and the 1947 uprisings 62

2.4 National Revolution, 1952-64 65

2.4.1 The legacies of revolutionary nationalism 65

2.4.2 Developmental capitalism - a nationalist-populist regime of accumulation 67

2.4.3 The revolution moves rightwards 68

2.4.4 The working class, 1952-64 70

2.4.5 The indigenous peasantry, 1952-64 73

Conclusion 75

Chapter 3 Authoritarianism, Democracy, and Popular Struggle, 1964-85 77

3.1 The legacies of Barrientos 79

3.1.1 The working class, 1964-71 81

3.1.2 The Asamblea Popular, 1971 85

3.1.3 The indigenous peasantry, 1964-71 87

3.2 Political economy of Hugo Bánzer's dictatorship, 1971-8 90

3.2.1 Santa Cruz and the new bourgeoisie 93

3.2.2 The working class, 1971-8 95

3.2.3 The indigenous peasantry, 1971-8 98

3.3 The struggle for democracy, 1978-82 103

Conclusion 110

Chapter 4 Neoliberal Counter-Revolution, 1985-2000 113

4.1 From state-led developmentalism to neoliberalism 115

4.1.1 Privatisation of the tin-mines 118

4.1.2 The new world of labour 120

4.1.3 Formation of the cocaleros' movement 124

4.1.4 Formation of the Movimiento al Socialismo (MAS) 128

4.1.5 Other indigenous-peasant struggle in the late-i98os 130

4.1.6 The Acuerdo Patriótico 134

4.2 State-multiculturalism and Phase II of neoliberal restructuring, 1993-2000 135

4.3 Privatisation 139

4.3.1 Natural gas 139

4.3.2 Cochabamba's water 141

4.4 Recession and state-crisis at the end of the 1990s 142

Conclusion 145

Chapter 5 Left-Indigenous Insurrectionary Cycle, 2000-3 147

5.1 The Cochabamba Water-War, 2000 148

5.1.1 Usos y costumbres and oppositional consciousness 148

5.1.2 Infrastructure of class-struggle 150

5.1.3 Three battles and state-crisis 157

5.2 The insurrectionary Aymara peasantry 162

5.2.1 The CSUTCB and rural infrastructure of class-struggle 163

5.2.2 Blocking roads: April, September-October 2000 and June-July 2001 168

5.2.3 Popular cultures of resistance and oppositional consciousness - Aymara radicalism 172

5.3 The 12-13 February 2003 Impuestazo 177

Conclusion 181

Chapter 6 Red October: Gas-War, 2003 184

6.1 A portrait of El Alto 187

6.1.1 A city of migrant-labourers 187

6.1.2 El Alto's working classes as historical formations 189

6.1.3 Popular cultures of resistance and opposition 192

6.2 El Alto's infrastructure of class-struggle 196

6.2.1 FEJUVE-El Alto 198

6.2.2 COR-El Alto 199

6.2.3 Dialectics of popular power 200

6.3 Infrastructure of the formal working-class and social-movement unionism 203

6.4 Narrative of the Gas-War: dialectics of state-repression and mass-radicalisation 204

6.4.1 Indigenous-peasant revolt and urban tremors in September 212

6.4.2 The collective frame of gas 214

6.4.3 State-massacre in Warisata and the radicalisation of left-indigenous struggle 216

6.4.4 The formal working class steps in 219

6.5 iEl Alto de pie! El Alto on its feet! Democratic insurgency, state-repression, and élite-fractures 220

6.6 Middle-class moment: Goni's resignation 224

Conclusion 227

Chapter 7 Carlos Mesa and a Divided Country: Left-Indigenous and Eastern-Bourgeois Blocs in the Second Gas-War of May and June 2005 229

7.1 Carlos Mesa and a divided country: left-indigenous and eastern-bourgeois blocs 231

7.2 Nationalisation-frame, class-infrastructure, repertoir of contention 238

7.2.1 The collective frame of gas-nationalisation 238

7.2.2 Infrastructure of class-struggle and the left-indigenous bloc 240

7.2.3 Repertoires of contention 240

7.3 Narrative of the May-June Gas-War 241

7.3.1 Tensions mounts in early May 241

7.3.2 Élite-ruptures 243

7.3.3 Moderates and radicals 244

7.4 The Second Gas-War begins: the marches of 16 May 245

7.4.1 The absence of lethal state-repression and further élite-ruptures 247

7.5 The new hydrocarbons-law 248

7.5.1 Left-indigenous bloc responds to new hydrocarbons-law 249

7.5.2 Revolutionary consciousness grows within left-indigenous bloc 251

7.5.3 Divisions between moderates and radicals deepen 252

7.5.4 Revolutionary visions of left-indigenous bloc 256

Conclusion 258

Chapter 8 Combined-Oppositional Consciousness 260

8.1 Lo Vecinal, vecino, and the oppositional consciousness of race and class 263

8.2 Popular cultures of resistance and opposition: revolutionary memories 268

8.3 Revolutionary memory and family-traditions of resistance 273

8.4 Anti-imperialism: structures of domination and exploitation 276

8.5 Natural resources are not private property 281

8.6 Freedom-dreams 289

8.6.1 A future of equality without social classes 290

8.6.2 Indigenous liberation: a future free of racism 291

8.6.3 Dignity, social justice, and basic necessities 293

8.6.4 Socialist and indigenous-liberationist democracy 295

Conclusion 299

Chapter 9 Conclusion: Bolivia, Venezuela, and the Latin-American Left 300

9.1 Social-movement theory 301

9.2 Liberal institutionalism and Latin-American indigenous struggles 303

9.3 Working classes as historical formations 307

9.4 Infrastructure of class-struggle 309

9.5 Social-movement unionism 310

9.6 Popular cultures of resistance and opposition 311

9.7 Neoliberalism 312

9.8 The state and repression 314

9.9 Combined-oppositional consciousness 316

9.10 Bolivia and the left turn in Latin-American politics 318

9.11 Hugo Chavez and the Bolivarian process in Venezuela 319

9.12 The global economic crisis and the future of the Latin-American Left 324

9.13 From pink to red? 327

Appendix A Formal Interviewees 331

Appendix B Methodology 337

References 341

Index 365

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