Reduced Thermal Processing for ULSI

Reduced Thermal Processing for ULSI

by R.A. Levy (Editor)


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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781461278573
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 09/30/2011
Series: Nato Science Series B: , #207
Edition description: 1989
Pages: 450
Product dimensions: 6.69(w) x 9.61(h) x 0.04(d)

Table of Contents

Rapid Thermal Processing with Reactive Gases.- Rapid Thermal Processing.- Kinetics of Silicon Dielectrics by RTP.- Applications.- Polysilicon Dielectrics.- Rapid Thermal CVD: In-Situ Device Fabrication.- Summary.- Silicidation by Rapid Thermal Processing.- Reactions in the Salicide Process.- Technological Implementation.- Device Implementation of TiSi2 and CoSi2.- Conclusions.- Microstructural Defects in Rapid Thermally Processed IC Materials.- Microstructural Defects in Implanted and Subsequently Rapid Thermally Annealed Silicon Wafers.- Shallow Emitters (for Bipolar Transistors) from Doped Polysilicon Contacts.- Rapid Thermal Oxidation (RTO).- Rapid Thermal Processing of Silicides.- Concluding Remarks.- Rapid Thermal Annealing — Theory and Practice.- Transfer of Energy in Radiant Heating Systems.- Physics of Rapid Thermal Annealers Using Lamp Sources.- Modelling of Rapid Thermal Annealing — Temperature Control.- Modelling of Rapid Thermal Annealing — Temperature Uniformity.- Temperature Measurement.- Emissivity Measurement.- Temperature Non-Uniformity.- Problems and Solutions.- Practical Machine Designs.- Rapid Thermal Process Integration.- CMOS Device Processing.- Device/Circuit Operation Considerations.- Process Interaction Problems.- Process Integration Opportunities with RTP.- Summary.- to Direct Writing of Integrated Circuit.- Laser Pantography Procedure.- Resolution in Laser Pantography.- Laser Induced Temperature.- Laser Wavelength and Laser Power.- Main Difficulties in Laser Direct Writing.- Deposition and Etching Rates.- Process for Silicon Microelectronics.- Laser Induced Chemical Reactions.- Conclusion.- Ion Beam Assisted Processes.- Defect and Collision Cascade.- Ion Beam Assisted Epitaxy Regrowth.- High Current Implant.- Conclusions.- Micrometallization Technologies.- Metallization Techniques.- Ohmic Contacts.- Gate Contacts.- Barrier Layers.- Interconnections.- Multilevel Interconnect Structures.- Metal Conductor Generation.- Intermetal Insulation and Step Coverage.- Topographical Effects.- Possible Solutions to Multilevel Interconnect Problems.- Speculation on Future Multilevel Interconnect.- Interlevel Dielectrics for Reduced Thermal Processing.- Pre-Metal Planarization Process.- Requirements.- Deposition Process.- Optimization of the Flow Step.- Film Analysis.- Other Methods Involving Oxides.- Multilevel-Metal (MLM) Concepts.- Deposited Layers for MLM.- Planarization Concepts.- Depositions Incorporating In-Situ Etchback.- Conclusion.- Low Temperature Silicon Epitaxy for Novel Device Structures.- Low Temperature Epitaxy.- Auto doping, Transition Width and Dopant Incorporation/Reincorporation.- Buried Layer Pattern Transmittance.- Selective Epitaxial Growth.- Conclusion.- Participants.

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