Reflectarray Antennas: Analysis, Design, Fabrication and Measurement

Reflectarray Antennas: Analysis, Design, Fabrication and Measurement

by Jafar Shaker

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781608074990
Publisher: Artech House, Incorporated
Publication date: 11/30/2013
Pages: 226
Product dimensions: 7.20(w) x 10.20(h) x 0.80(d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

1.1 General Background 1

1.2 Why Reflectarrays? 2

1.3 The Structure of the Book 4

References 6

Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Reflectarray and General Design Guidelines 9

2.1 General Design Equations 9

2.2 Aperture Efficiency of Reflectarray and Comparison with Conventional Parabolic Reflector 13

2.2.1 Illumination Efficiency 13

2.2.2 Spillover Efficiency 14

2.2.3 Polarization Efficiency 15

2.2.4 Phase Efficiency 16

2.2.5 Blockage Efficiency 17

2.2.6 Dielectric and Conductor Loss 17

2.3 Simplest Reflectarray Cell Element: Microstrip Patch 18

2.3.1 Phase Versus Length Curves 19

2.3.2 General Trends for Phase-Length Characteristics of the Patch 20

References 24

Chapter 3 Different Types of Cell Elements for Reflectarrays 25

3.1 Resonant Cell Elements 25

3.1.1 Patch Element 26

3.1.2 Multiresonant Patch Cell Elements 28

3.2 Loop Elements 31

3.3 Phase Shift by Loading Resonant Elements 35

3.4 Volumetric Cell Elements 41

3.5 Subwavelength, Coupled Resonant Elements 42

3.5.1 Subwavelength Patches and Loops 42

3.5.2 Advanced Subwavelength Elements 46

3.5.3 Subwavelength Fragmented Elements 50

3.5.4 Array Thinning with Subwavelength Elements 55

References 59

Chapter 4 Different Types of Reflectarrays 63

4.1 Multiband Reflectarray 63

4.1.1 Single-Layer, Dual-Band Reflectarray with Interlaced Elements 63

4.1.2 Dual-Band, Double-Layer Reflectarray with Stacked Elements 67

4.1.3 FSS-Backed Reflectarray 69

4.2 Circularly Polarized Reflectarrays 72

4.3 Folded Reflectarray 77

4.4 Power Combining and Beam Splitting 80

4.5 Subreflectarray Structures 83

4.6 Beam Shaping 85

References 93

Chapter 5 Numerical Methods: Pathway to a Better Understanding of Reflectarrays 95

5.1 Application on the Method of Moment in the Analysis of Reflectarrays 95

5.2 Application of Circuit Models in the Analysis of Reflectarray Cell Element 100

5.3 Calculation of the Radiation Pattern of a Reflectarray 102

5.4 Application of Commercial Software in the Design and Analysis of Reflectarrays 107

5.5 The Infinite-from-Finite Method 110

5.6 Characteristic Mode Analysis of Periodic Structures 113

5.6.1 Fundamentals of Characteristic Mode Analysis 113

5.6.2 Efficient and Unambiguous Extraction of Reflection and Transmission Coefficients 114

References 117

Chapter 6 Reflectarray Bandwidth 119

6.1 Introduction 119

6.2 Bandwidth Limitation by the Reflectarray Element 121

6.3 Multiresonant Elements 123

6.3.1 Square-Loop Cell Element 123

6.3.2 Cross-Loop Cell Element 124

6.3.3 Hybrid Cell Element 124

6.4 Subwavelength Elements 125

6.5 Bandwidth Limitation by Differential Spatial Phase Delay 128

6.5.1 Verification of the Optimization Method 130

6.6 Impact of the Feed Position on the Bandwidth of Broadband Reflectarrays 135

References 138

Chapter 7 Reflectarrays on Lossy Substrates 141

7.1 Introductory Remarks 141

7.2 A Description of the Loss Mechanism in Reflectarray Elements 141

7.3 Cataloging Elements Based on Loss Performance 142

7.3.1 Loss Performance of Narrowband Versus "Wideband Elements 142

7.3.2 Loss Performance of Subwavelength, Coupled Resonant Elements 144

7.4 Frequency Dispersion of the Reflection Phase and Its Relationship with Loss 146

7.4.1 Qualitative Description of Loss Reduction 146

7.4.2 Quantitative Description of Loss Reduction 148

7.5 High-Performance Reflectarrays Using Lossy Substrates 151

7.6 Concluding Remarks 155

References 156

Chapter 8 Transmitarray 156

8.1 Introduction 159

8.2 Antenna-Filter-Antenna Transmitarray 159

8.3 Multilayer Transmitarray Using Matching Impedance 163

8.3.1 Transmitarray with Multilayer of Dipoles 163

8.3.2 Dual-Band Transmitarray 167

8.3.3 Multilayer Transmitarray Using Loop Elements 168

8.3.4 Phase Shifting Surface (PSS) 173

References 177

Chapter 9 New Techniques for Beam Switching or Steering in Reflectarray and Transmitarray 179

9.1 Introduction 179

9.2 Mechanical Techniques for Beam Scanning of Reflectarray and Transmitarray 180

9.2.1 A Mechanical Method for Beam Switching of Reflectarray 181

9.2.2 A Mechanical Method for Beam Scanning of Transmitarray 183

9.3 Reflectarray Beam Scanning Using Reconfigurable Materials 184

9.3.1 Photonically Controlled Method for Beam Scanning of Reflectarray 184

9.3.2 Reconfigurable Reflectarrays Using Liquid Crystals 187

9.4 Electronically Controlled Reflectarray Antennas 190

9.5 Dual Reflectarray Antenna for Beam-Scanning Application 195

References 196

Chapter 10 Fabrication Technologies 199

10.1 Outline of Reflectarray Fabrication Technologies 199

10.2 Element Performance and Minimum Feature Size 200

10.2.1 Traditional Resonant Elements 200

10.2.2 Subwavelength Elements 200

10.3 The Impact of Etching Tolerance on Reflectarray Performance 201

10.3.1 Narrowband Resonant Elements 201

10.3.2 Wideband Resonant Elements 203

10.3.3 Subwavelength Elements 204

10.4 Novel Designs Employing the Sole Use of Material Routing 206

10.4.1 Dielectric-Only Reflectarrays 206

10.4.2 Metal-Only Reflectarrays 207

10.5 Inkjet-Printed Reflectarrays 208

References 210

Chapter 11 Conclusion and Future Directions 213

About the Authors 219

Index 221

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FRINGEINDEPENEDENTREVIEW More than 1 year ago
Are you a professional antenna technologist? If you are, then this book is for you. Authors Jafar Shaker and Mohammad Reza Chaharmir, have done an outstanding job of writing a book that enhances reflectarray antenna research. Authors Shaker and Chaharmir, begin by describing general design guidelines in which a direct comparison with conventional reflector antenna is provided, by focusing on conventional efficiency figures of reflectors. Next, the authors focus on different types of cell elements, their special features, and considerations that might make one type of cell elements superior to another for a given set of specifications that addresses a particular application. Then, they deal with different types of reflectarrays. In addition, the authors examine the method of moment, which is among the most versatile and conceptually rich numerical methods that have been used in the calculation of scattering from infinite periodic structures illuminated by plane wave. They continue, with a presentation of the extensive research that is occurring on broadening bandwidth of reflectarray structures. Next, the authors show you how low-cost substrates should be developed to prevent degradation of the performance, as a result of lossy substrate. Then, they present various other antenna structures that have emerged, as a result of research on reflectarray, transmitarrays and subreflectarrays. In addition, the authors present the extensive research that has been carried out, which shows that reflectarrays are inherenly well suited to the integration of electronics that can be used for reconfigurability. They then examine the effect of etching tolerance on the performance of reflectarrays. Finally, the authors explore the future directions of reflectarray research and also potential applications of the technology in face of the emergence of new fabrication techniques to accommodate both passive and active elements. This excellent book is meant to serve as a complete exposition of design, analysis, fabrication, test, and operation of reflectarray antennas. Also, this great book places an emphasis on the presentation of the underlying physical principles of radiating structures.