A leading M.I.T. social scientist and consultant examines five professionsengineering, architecture, management, psychotherapy, and town planningto show how professionals really go about solving problems.The best professionals, Donald Schön maintains, know more than they can put into words. To meet the challenges of their work, they rely less on formulas learned in graduate school than on the kind of improvisation learned in practice. This unarticulated, largely unexamined process is the subject of Schön's provocatively original book, an effort to show precisely how ”reflection-in-action” works and how this vital creativity might be fostered in future professionals.
About the Author
Donald A. Schön is Ford Professor of Urban Studies and Education at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Most Helpful Customer Reviews
A provocative and powerful view of practical knowledge. Schon argues that effective professionals do not simply follow the accepted body of knowledge corresponding to their field, but instead engage, intuitively, in a reflective conversation with their problems, probing them, reframing them, and relating them to previous cases. He also argues convincingly that the commonly accepted research and development model in which practitioners bring problems to scientists and scientists hand back reproducible solutions is broken and misleading.