Regional and Local Aspects of Air Quality Management

Regional and Local Aspects of Air Quality Management

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Overview

Regional and Local Aspects of Air Quality Management by D.M. M. Elsom

Scientists and engineers describe the development and implementation of selected local or regional management frameworks and/or measures adopted to achieve and sustain acceptable air quality in nine countries. After an overview, they look at Australia; whether the local air quality management framework in Britain is a transferable process; monitoring and modelling air quality in Mendoza, Argentina; managing motor vehicle emissions in the US; Bogota, Columbia; a sectoral analysis of air pollution control in Delhi; Mexico City's air pollution problem; the greater Tehran metropolitan area; and Italy. An earlier collection presented international studies. There is no index. The US office of WIT Press is Computational Mechanics. Annotation ©2004 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781853129520
Publisher: WIT Press
Publication date: 07/30/2004
Series: Advances in Air Pollution Ser.
Pages: 336
Product dimensions: 6.50(w) x 9.30(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1Local and regional aspects of air quality management: an overview1
1Introduction1
2Air quality management1
3Air quality management in Australia and Great Britain3
4The importance of modelling: case study of Mendoza, Argentina5
5Tackling motor vehicle emissions: the USA experience6
6The challenges facing Bogota, Delhi, Mexico City and Tehran7
7Regional air quality management: Italy and United Kingdom12
8Conclusion13
Chapter 2Air quality management in Australia15
1Introduction16
2Steps toward a nationally consistent approach to air quality management in Australia16
3Air pollution science20
3.1The major air pollutants20
3.2National Environmental Protection Measure (NEPM) for Ambient Air Quality (Air NEPM)20
3.3Ambient air quality in Australia's four major urban centres22
3.4Air emissions inventories24
3.5Meteorology27
3.6Air pollution modelling29
3.7Collation of background material to define the overall problem30
4Air pollution management30
4.1Sydney31
4.2Melbourne33
4.3Brisbane36
4.4Perth38
4.5Discussion40
5Conclusion45
Chapter 3A critical evaluation of the local air quality management framework in Great Britain. Is it a transferable process?51
1Introduction to historical context and conceptual framework52
2Developing the new legislative framework for air quality management55
3Local air quality management62
3.1Review and assessment62
3.2Support mechanisms for local authorities63
4How have local authorities fared in the review and assessment process?66
4.1Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) designated67
4.2Local authority practice68
5Discussion70
6Conclusions on the British approach72
7A transferable system?73
8Recommendations73
Chapter 4Monitoring and modelling air quality in Mendoza, Argentina83
1Introduction83
2Materials and methods86
2.1Meteorology and orography86
2.2Monitoring and sampling87
2.3Cycles of the airborne particles88
2.4Geographical Information System92
2.5Data collection93
2.6Calculation of industrial emissions93
2.7Calculation of the vehicle emissions94
2.8Description of the model97
2.9Calibration of the model98
3Results102
3.1Model outputs102
3.2Future scenarios109
3.3Results of the simulation110
4Case study112
4.1Epidemiological survey113
4.2Meteorological conditions113
4.3Dispersion models113
4.4Monitoring measurements113
4.5Results of the simulation model114
4.6Conclusions of the case study116
5Conclusions116
Chapter 5Management of motor vehicle emissions in the United States119
1Introduction119
2Air pollution emissions from motor vehicles120
2.1Gasoline combustion120
2.2Diesel combustion122
3Impacts from motor vehicles124
3.1Human health effects124
3.2Ecological effects129
4Motor vehicle legislation131
4.1The Clean Air Act132
4.2The Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century135
5Controlling emissions from motor vehicles137
5.1Gasoline vehicles137
5.2Diesel vehicles143
6Voluntary motor vehicle emission reduction programs149
6.1Creating the policy150
6.2Creating national level voluntary transportation programs150
7International programs151
Chapter 6Air quality management in Bogota157
1Introduction157
2State of the air quality in Bogota158
2.1Air quality regulation158
2.2Air quality network of Bogota160
2.3Air quality in Bogota163
2.4Air Quality Index for Bogota167
3Regulatory framework169
3.1Fuels169
3.2Stationary sources172
3.3Mobile sources174
4Emission sources175
4.1Stationary sources175
4.2Contamination originated in the ways of the city180
4.3Mobile sources181
4.4Pollutant emissions by mobile sources182
5Actions being taken to improve the air quality of Bogota183
5.1Fuels183
5.2Stationary sources184
5.3Mobile sources185
5.4Other actions187
6Actions to be taken to improve the air quality of Bogota187
6.1Stationary sources187
6.2Mobile sources188
Chapter 7Sectoral analysis of air pollution control in Delhi193
1Introduction193
2India's legislative framework for air pollution control194
3Institutional framework196
4Study area197
5Status of ambient air quality199
5.1Particulate matter204
5.2Gaseous pollutants205
6Health implications of air quality206
7Sectoral analysis207
7.1Transport sector208
7.2Industrial and power sector213
7.3Domestic sector216
8Conclusions218
Chapter 8Mexico City's air pollution problem223
1Introduction224
2The air pollution-monitoring network226
3The public transport problem227
4The taxi fleet problem227
5Air pollutant trends228
6Impact of air pollution on health231
7Conclusions231
Chapter 9Air quality management in Greater Tehran Metropolitan area235
1Introduction235
2More about air pollution chart in Tehran236
2.1Carbon monoxide (CO)236
2.2Oxides of nitrogen (NO[subscript x])238
2.3Particulate matter (PM-10)239
2.4Air Quality Data242
2.5Air Quality Standards242
2.6PSI242
3Nitrogen deposition in the greater Tehran metropolitan area243
3.1Introduction244
3.2Experimental method/procedures245
3.3Results and discussion246
3.4Conclusion248
4Comparison of air quality in 1999-2000 with regarding to carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM-10)249
4.1Carbon monoxide (CO)249
4.2Particulate matter (PM-10)250
5Emission reduction projects in Tehran251
5.1Indoor environments251
5.2Outdoor environments projects251
Chapter 10Regional air quality management in Italy261
1Introduction261
2Emission inventory262
2.1Nomenclature of activities262
2.2Pollutants263
2.3Sources classification263
2.4Emissions estimate: point sources263
2.5Emissions estimate: area sources264
2.6Emissions estimate: road transport264
2.7Emissions estimate: waterborne transport267
2.8Emissions estimate: air transport268
2.9Emissions estimate: forest269
2.10Emissions from forest fires270
2.11Spatial disaggregation272
2.12Temporal disaggregation273
2.13Sensitivity analysis273
2.14Results274
3Analysis of air quality data276
4Classification of territory and analysis of priority in intervention278
4.1Environmental sensibility278
4.2Pollutants loads279
4.3Remediation actions priority280
5Mortality data analysis281
6Emissions projections282
6.1Emissions projection methodology282
6.2Emissions projection drivers283
6.3Scenarios definition284
6.4Projection of emissions without emissions reduction methods284
7Definition of air quality objectives285
8Strategies and scenarios for emission control285
9Evaluation of emissions reduction strategies287
10Air quality evaluation in different scenarios287
10.1Long-term models287
10.2Photochemical models289
10.3Traffic models290
11Air quality management planning information system292
12Conclusions293
Chapter 11Air quality management--the Sussex experience301
1Introduction301
1.1Composition of the Group303
1.2Aims and objectives303
2The formation of the Group304
3Emissions inventory305
4Project Development Officer307
5Local air quality management in Sussex308
6Air quality monitoring in Sussex310
6.1Headline air quality indicator314
7Information dissemination315
8Planning and air quality317
8.1Local Transport Plans318
9Benefits of collaborative working319
10An air quality forum?319
11Future work319
12Conclusions320

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