Reproductive Processes and Contraception

Reproductive Processes and Contraception

by Kenneth W. McKerns

Paperback(Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1981)

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Reproductive Processes and Contraception by Kenneth W. McKerns

This monograph represents the eighth sponsored by the International Society for Biochemical Endocrinology. The topics should be of interest to basic research scientists, medical practitioners, and students of repro­ ductive biology. It complements our monograph published in 1979 on Structure and Function of the Gonadotropins. The monograph is organized in ten topic areas relative to the general theme of reproduction and contraception. There are several chapters in each area. Obviously, all aspects of each area could not be covered. An attempt was made to seek interesting basic research ideas and concepts that might in the future be applicable to fertility regulation. The topics are: interactions in gonadotropin regulation; GnRH analogues as contra­ ceptive agents; receptors in cellular localization of hormones; uterine and mammary receptors; germ-cell regulation and secretory proteins; control mechanisms and metabolic regulations; hCG peptides and anti­ sera as antifertility agents; ieutinization, oocyte maturation, and early pregnancy; steroids and cell growth; and finally, prostaglandins and cell function. The studies encompass many disciplines and techniques in anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and endocrinology in animals and humans, both in vitro and in vivo. A conference of contributors was held in Maine at the Asticou Inn in Northeast Harbor during the week of September 9-13, 1979. The chapters as written for the monograph were presented for discussion by the participants, who were selected for their knowledge of, and contri­ butions to, this area of scientific investigation.

Product Details

ISBN-13: 9781468438260
Publisher: Springer US
Publication date: 07/15/2012
Series: Biochemical Endocrinology Series
Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1981
Pages: 752
Product dimensions: 5.98(w) x 9.02(h) x 0.06(d)

Table of Contents

I Interactions in Gonadotropin Regulation.- 1 Control of Gonadotropin and Prolactin Secretion in Rhesus Monkeys and Rodents.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Demonstration of the Presence of “Inhibin” within Proestrous Hamster Ovaries.- 3. Does Inhibin Play a Role in the Ovulatory Cycle of the Human?.- 4. Determination of Estradiol’s Site of Negative Feedback Action in the Rhesus Monkey.- 5. How Does the Hypothalamus Regulate the Secretion of Prolactin and What Is the Role of Estradiol in This Phenomenon in the Female Rhesus Monkey?.- 6. Conclusions.- Discussion.- References.- 2 Regulation of LH-RH Secretion by Gonadal Steroids and Catecholamines.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Effects of Gonadal Steroids on LH-RH Secretion in Male Rats.- 3. Effects of Gonadal Steroids on LH-RH Secretion in Female Rats.- 4. Summary.- Discussion.- References.- 3 Sensitivity of Pituitary Gonadotropic Cells and Gonads to Hormones.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Aim of the Investigation.- 3. Neonatal Rat as a Model for Studying the Endocrine-Cell Reaction to Gonadal Steroids.- 4. Sensitivity of GTH Cells to GRH and Gonadal Steroids.- 5. Sensitivity of Ovarian Tissue.- 6. Sensitivity of Testicular Tissue.- 7. Concluding Remarks.- Discussion.- References.- II GnRH Analogues as Contraceptive Agents.- 4 Induction of Menstruation Following Subcutaneous Injection of LH-RH and Intranasal Administration of [d-Ser(TBU)6 des-Gly-NH210]LH-RH Ethylamide after Ovulation in Normal Women.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Subjects, Treatments, and Methods.- 3. Results.- 4. Discussion.- 5. Summary.- Discussion.- References.- 5 Antifertility Effects of LH-RH and Its Agonists.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Antireproductive Properties of the LH-Releasing Peptides in the Female.- 3. Antireproductive Properties of the LH-Releasing Peptides in the Male.- 4. Noncontraceptive Utility of Antireproductive Activity: Antitumor Effects.- 5. Conclusions.- References.- 6 Fertility and Antifertility Effects of LH-RH and Its Agonists.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Induction of Ovulation by LH-RH and Agonists.- 3. Induction of Mating Behavior, Ovulation, and Pregnancy by LH-RH and Agonists.- 4. Antifertility Effects of LI-I-RH and Agonists.- 5. Concluding Remarks.- Discussion.- References.- III Receptors in Cellular Localization of Hormones.- 7 Stable and Specific Tracers.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Some Pitfalls in the Use of Available Tags.- 3. Methods for Palliating Specificity Disadvantages.- 4. Improvements upon Available Radioligands.- 5. Current Applications of Synthetic Radioligands.- References.- 8 Specific Inhibitors of Androgen Binding to the Androgen-Binding Protein (ABP).- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 3. Results.- 4. Discussion.- Discussion.- References.- 9 Profiles of Target-Cell Prolactin and Adrenocorticotropin during Lactational Diestrus.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Prolactin in the Normal Rat Mammary Gland.- 3. Experimental Modulation of Milk-Secretory-Cell Prolactin.- 4. Adrenal-CorticalCell Prolactin and Adrenocorticotropin.- 5. Follicular Prolactin.- 6. Conclusion.- Discussion.- References.- 10 Gonadotropin-like Immunoreactivity in the Rat Ovary: Ultrastructural Localization in the Granulosa, Theca, and Lutein Cells.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 3. Results.- 4. Discussion.- References.- IV Uterine and Mammary Receptors.- 11 Hormonal Modulation of Progesterone Receptors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Experimental Methods and Results.- 3. In Vivo Experiment.- 4. Does Progesterone Affect the Properties of the Progesterone Receptor?.- 5. Nuclear Receptors.- 6. Metabolism of Progesterone in the Uterus.- 7. Discussion.- Discussion.- References.- 12 Hormonal Control of Steroid Receptors in Human Endometrium during the Menstrual Cycle.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methodological Problems.- 3. Estradiol and Progesterone Receptors in the Normal Menstrual Cycle.- 4. General Conclusions.- References.- 13 Parturition, Lactation, and the Regulation of Oxytocin Receptors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Oxytocin Receptors.- 3. Changes in the Concentration of Oxytocin Receptors in the Myometrium in the Estrous Cycle.- 4. OxytocinReceptor Regulation in the Rat Mammary Gland.- 5. Changes in the Concentration of Myometrial Oxytocin Receptors Preceding Parturition.- 6. Possible Factors That Increase the Concentration of Myometrial Oxytocin Receptors.- 7. Mechanisms of Parturition.- References.- V Germ-Cell Regulation and Secretory Proteins.- 14 Control of Spermatogonial Multiplication.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Material and Methods.- 3. Definitions of Parameters.- 4. Factors That Affect Variation: Results and Discussion.- 5. Stem-Cell Renewal: A Critical Point of View.- 6. Conclusions.- Discussion.- References.- 15 Secretory Proteins in the Male Reproductive System.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Testicular Androgen-Binding Protein (ABP).- 3. Acidic Epididymal Glycoprotein (AEG).- 4. Prostatein.- 5. Summary and Conclusions.- Discussion.- References.- 16 Monitoring the Metabolic Rate of Germ Cells and Sperm.- 1. Overview of the Metabolic Needs of Germ Cells, Sperm, and Ova: Changes during Differentiation and Specialization.- 2. Selection of an Animal Model.- 3. General Aspects of Metabolism.- 4. Methods for Analysis of Metabolic Rate.- 5. Application of These Methods to the Evaluation of Sperm Metabolism.- 6. Need for Multiple Methods to Estimate Metabolic Rate.- 7. Conclusions and Projections.- Discussion.- References.- 17 Study of a Glycoprotein Produced by the Rat Epididymis.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Purification of the Sialoprotein.- 3. Radioimmunoassay and Concentration of the Sialoprotein in the Epididymis.- 4. Localization of the Sialoprotein in the Epididymis and on Spermatozoa.- 5. Discussion.- References.- VI Control Mechanisms and Metabolic Regulation.- 18 The Use of Isopropyl-N-phenylcarbamate as a Potential Contraceptive: Control of Meiotic Maturation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 3. Results.- 4. Discussion.- Discussion.- References.- 19 Interaction between Prolactin and Gonadotropin Secretion.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Apparent Reciprocity between Prolactin and Gonadotropin Secretion.- 3. Prolactin and the Negative-Feedback Regulatory Mechanism of Gonadotropins by the Sex Hormones.- 4. Prolactin and the Positive Feedback of Estrogens on Gonadotropin Secretion.- 5. Prolactin and the Pituitary Responsiveness to LH-RH Administration.- 6. Role of Hypothalamic Neurotransmitters in Prolactin and Gonadotropin Secretion.- 7. Conclusions.- Discussion.- References.- 20 Interactions among LH, FSH, PRL, LH-RH, and Sex Steroids in the Control of Testicular LH, FSH, and PRL Receptors in the Rat.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Receptor Assays.- 3. Plasma PRL and Androgen Assays and Calculations.- 4. Hormones.- 5. Down-Regulation of Testicular Gonadotropin Receptors by LH-RH and Its Agonists.- 6. Regulation of Testicular Gonadotropin-Receptor Levels in Hypophysectomized Animals.- 7. Possible Direct Testicular Effects of LH-RH Agonists.- 8. Summary and Conclusions.- Discussion.- References.- 21 Inhibition of Testicular Androgen Biosynthesis by Treatment with LH-RH Agonists.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Steroidogenesis in Adult Rat Testis.- 3. Down-Regulation of Testicular Androgen Biosynthesis and LH Receptors by an LH-RH Agonist.- 4. Comparative Effects of an LH-RH Agonist and hCG on Testicular Steroidogenesis.- 5. Recovery of Testicular Androgen Formation after 1 Month of Treatment with an LI-I-RH Agonist.- 6. Inhibitory Effects of a Single Intranasal Administration of [d-Ser(TBU)6,des-Gly-NH210]LH-RH Ethylamide on Serum Steroid Levels in Normal Adult Men.- 7. Blockage of the Testicular Steroidogenic Pathway and Role of Prolactin.- References.- 22 Gonadotropic Stimulation of Enzymes Involved in Testicular Growth.- 23 Uterine Diamine Oxidase: A Marker for Progestin Action.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 3. Results.- 4. Discussion.- Discussion.- References.- VII hCG Peptides and Antisera as Antifertility Agents.- 24 Specific Antisera to Human Choriogonadotropin.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Measurement of hCG by Immunoassay with Anti-?-Subunit Antisera.- 3. Measurement of hCG Using Anti-? COOH-Terminal Antisera.- 4. Areas That Require Additional Study.- 5. Conclusion.- Discussion.- References.- 25 Development of Specific Antisera for Human Chorionic Gonadotropin.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Characteristics of hCG and Its Subunits.- 3. Development of Specific Antisera for hCG.- 4. Conclusions.- References.- 26 Isolation and Characterization of an “hCG”-like Protein from Bacteria.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 3. Results.- 4. Discussion.- Discussion.- References.- VIII Luteinization, Oocyte Maturation, and Early Pregnancy.- 27 Comparative Approach to Mechanisms in the Maintenance of Early Pregnancy.- 1. Endocrine Changes during the Estrous Cycle and Early Pregnancy.- 2. The Uterus, Corpus Luteum Maintenance, and Maternal Recognition of Pregnancy Signals in Domestic Animals.- 3. Conceptus-Endometrial Steroid Metabolism.- Discussion.- References.- 28 Porcine and Human Ovarian Nonsteroidal Follicular Regulators: Oocyte-Maturation Inhibitor, Luteinization Inhibitor, Luteinizing-Hormone-Receptor-Binding Inhibitor, Follicle-Stimulating-Hormone-Binding Inhibitor, and Inhibin F.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Materials and Methods.- 3. Results and Discussion.- 4. Summary.- Discussion.- References.- IX Steroids and Cell Growth.- 29 Estrogen-Induced Growth of Uterine Cells: Evidence for Involvement of Surface Membranes, Calcium, and Proteinase Activity.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Background.- 3. New Evidence on Interactions of Estrogen with Target-Cell Membranes.- 4. Conclusions.- Discussion.- References.- X Prostaglandins and Cell Function.- 30 Prostaglandin-Induced Luteolysis in the Superluteinized Rat Ovary.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Animal Model.- 3. Luteinizing-Hormone Receptors in the Superluteinized Rat Ovary and Luteolysis.- 4. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin and Prolactin in Vivo in Prostaglandin-Induced Luteolysis.- 5. Corpus Luteum Function in Vitro Following Prostaglandin Treatment in Vivo.- 6. 20?-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Activity of the Ovary Following Prostaglandin.- 7. Concluding Remarks and Summary.- Discussion.- References.- 31 Role of Prostaglandins in Leydig-Cell Stimulation by hCG and Leydig-Cell Function.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Role of Prostaglandins during LH-hCG Stimulation of Leydig Cells in the Adult Rat.- 3. Role of Prostaglandins in Immature Porcine Leydig Cells in Primary Culture.- 4. Discussion.- Discussion.- References.

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