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About the Author
Anthony M. Graziano is Professor Emeritus, Psychology, at the State University of New York, Buffalo. He was Co-Director of the Research Center for Children and Youth and served as the Director of the Clinical Area. Graziano received the B.A. degree from Columbia College and Ph.D. from Purdue University. He completed a clinical internship and a postdoctoral fellowship in child-clinical psychology at the Devereux Foundation. From 1961 to 1968 he developed and operated the first behavioral treatment program in the country for children with autism. Graziano was the first to employ relaxation and systematic desensitization techniques to help teach self-control skills to children with autism. He also served briefly as the Acting Director of the Kennedy Center for children with developmental disabilities. He has been a consultant to agencies in Connecticut, New York and Pennsylvania.
Graziano's research and writing has focused on children and families, and has included: child psychopathology; developmental disabilities; the treatment of childhood disorders; children's fears and phobias; behavior modification; parent training; community psychology; child abuse and neglect; family therapy; and cultural history. His most recent research was on the use of corporal punishment in child rearing, and he has been a long-time opponent of corporal punishment. He is editor, co-author, or author of fifteen books, 86 journal articles and presentations at professional meetings, and a dozen op-ed newspaper columns. Dr. Graziano has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Eastern Psychological Association, People, Inc., a Western New York agency serving persons with developmental disabilities, and the editorial board of the journal, Behavior Modification. When not playing with his grandchildren, Graziano passionately pursues cooking, tennis, carpentry, masonry, drawing cartoons, and traveling Europe with Sheila, his wife of 50 years.
Michael Raulin is a clinical associate professor at the State University of New York, Buffalo, where he has been a faculty member since 1978. He received his BS and Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin at Madison. At Buffalo, he was the director of the Psychological Services Center--the research and training clinic for the Ph.D. program in clinical psychology--and also headed the Ph.D. clinical psychology program for several years. He founded and directed the department’s Anxiety Disorders Clinic and maintained a small private practice for 20 years.
Dr. Raulin’s research has always focused on psychopathology, with most of his work on risk factors in schizophrenia. He has published 30 articles or chapters and is author of an abnormal psychology text. He served on the editorial board of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology and the Journal of Abnormal Psychology and reviewed papers for nearly 20 different journals and grant applications for the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. He has been active in psychological affairs, locally, regionally, and nationally. He was president of the Psychological Association of Western New York, chaired the program committees for the Society for Research in Psychopathology and the Eastern Psychological Association, and was president of the National Association of Directors of Psychology Training Clinics and secretary of Society for Research in Psychopathology. He has an excellent reputation for his teaching, with evaluations that consistently place him among the top instructors at the university. He has won awards for teaching and public service and is listed in Who’s Who in Among Rising Young Americans, Who’s Who Among Health Service Professionals, Who’s Who in Science and Engineering, and Who’s Who in Medicine and Health Care.
Table of Contents
Each chapter concludes with “Chapter Summary” and “Review Exercises.”
To the Instructor.
To the Student.
1. Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment.
Science Is a Way of Thinking.
Science and Art.
Emergence of Science.
The History of Psychology.
The Science of Psychology.
2. Research Is a Process of Inquiry.
A Process of Inquiry.
Basic Assumptions of Science.
Observation and Inference: Facts and Constructs.
Conceptual Models in Science.
Inductive and Deductive Thinking.
Models and Theories in Science.
A Model of the Research Process.
3. The Starting Point: Asking Questions.
Refining Questions for Research.
Types of Variables in Research.
Validity and the Control of Extraneous Variables.
4. Data and the Nature of Measurement.
Scales of Measurement.
Measuring and Controlling Variables.
The Need for Objective Measurement.
5. Statistical Analysis of Data.
Individual Differences and Statistical Procedures.
6. Field Research: I. Naturalistic Observation, Case-Study Research, and Survey Research.
The Challenge of Low-Constraint Research.
Examples of Naturalistic Observation.
Examples of Case-Study Research.
The Value of Low-Constraint Methods.
Problem Statements and Hypotheses in Naturalistic Observation and Case-Study Research.
Using NaturalisticObservation and Case-Study Methods.
Evaluating and Interpreting Data.
Limitations of Naturalistic Observation and Case-Study Methods.
7. Correlational and Differential Methods of Research.
Correlational Research Methods.
Differential Research Methods.
What Makes Differential Research Higher-Constraint Than Correlational Research?
When to Use Correlational and Differential Research.
Conducting Correlational Research.
Conducting Differential Research.
Limitations of Correlational and Differential Research.
8. Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity.
Validity and Threats to Validity.
Major Confounding Variables.
Subject and Experimenter Effects.
Validity, Control, and Constraint.
9. Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity.
Threats to Validity.
General Control Procedures.
Control Over Subject and Experimenter Effects.
Control Through Participant Selection and Assignment.
Control Through Experimental Design.
10. Control of Variance Through Experimental Design: Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs.
Experimental Designs: Testing One Independent Variable.
Statistical Analyses of Completely Randomized Designs.
Other Experimental Designs.
11. Control of Variance Through Experimental Design: Single-Variable, Correlated-Groups Designs.
12. Control of Variance through Experimental Design: Factorial Designs.
Variations of Basic Factorial Design.
ANOVA: A Postscript.
13. Field Research: II. A Second Look at Research in Natural Settings.
Conducting Field Research.
14. Final Preparations Before Data Collection.
Selecting Appropriate Statistical Procedures.
The Pre-Data Check.
15. Research Methodology: An Evolving Discipline.
New Directions in Research Methodology.
Science: An Interaction between Empiricism and Rationalism.
Appendix A: Using the CD and Web Supplements.
Resources Available on the CD and Website.
Accessing the CD Material.
Accessing the Web Material.
Appendix B: Writing a Research Report: APA Publication Style.
Structure of a Research Article.
Writing the Research Report.
Appendix C: Conducting Library Research.
Using the Library.
How Research Materials Are Organized.
Finding the Relevant Research.
Summary of Library Research.
Appendix D: Random Numbers.
Appendix E: Computerized Statistical Analyses.
Organizing and Entering the Data.
Data Analysis Using SPSS for Windows.
Appendix F: Selected Answers to Exercises.