Residential Broadband Networks: XDSL, HFC and Fixed Wireless Access

Residential Broadband Networks: XDSL, HFC and Fixed Wireless Access

by Uyless D. Black

Hardcover

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Product Details

ISBN-13: 9780139564420
Publisher: Prentice Hall, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/11/1997
Series: Prentice-Hall Series in Advanced Communications Technologies
Pages: 255
Product dimensions: 7.26(w) x 9.56(h) x 0.96(d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE: Preface

This book examines the emerging communications technology called Residential Broadband.


While the term "residential" is in the book's title, the focus is also on the business sector. The major topic of the book is on the "local loop," that is, the link (communications channel) between a residential or business dwelling and a service provider, such as the telephone company, the cable TV operator, or an Internet service provider.


The subject matter of the book revolves around three major topics:


(a) wiring or wireless schemes for the local loop, (b) coding and modulation techniques for the traffic, and (c) protocols to manage the bandwidth and control the access to/from the residential broadband system.


There are many issues pertaining to local loop access that are not yet resolved. However, the pieces are starting to come together, especially with the emergence of standards for coding/modulation, and protocols to manage the bandwidth. These issues, both resolved and unresolved, are examined in this book.


I hope the reader finds the information in this book useful. You can reach me at 102732.3535@compuserve.com.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
CHAPTER 1 Introduction
1(29)
Problems at the Local Loop
1(3)
Bandwidth Requirements Beyond Voice
2(2)
Problems Beyond the Local Loop
4(1)
Growth in Voice, Data, and Video Use
5(2)
The Increased Need for More Capacity
7(1)
Circuit and Packet Switching
7(1)
Approaches to Solving the Problems
8(1)
Present Residential Local Loop Configuration
9(3)
Full Service Terminal
11(1)
An Overview of the Local Loop
12(4)
LATAs
12(1)
The Outside Plant
12(2)
Subscriber Loop Systems
14(2)
POTS Design Goals
16(1)
Digital Loop Carrier (DLC) Systems
16(2)
Basic Subscriber System Arrangement
18(1)
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
19(1)
Coding/Modulation and Wiring Schemes
19(3)
High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL)
20(1)
ADSL/VADSL
21(1)
Access Technologies (Wiring Plans)
22(3)
FTTC, FTTH: FITL
23(1)
Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC)
24(1)
Switched Digital Video (SDV)
24(1)
SONET in Residential Broadband
25(1)
ATM in Residential Broadband
26(1)
Wireless Topology for Residential Broadband
27(2)
Summary
29(1)
CHAPTER 2 Coding and Modulation
30(21)
High-Data-Rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) Modulation
30(5)
Multilevel Coding
31(4)
Symbol Rates and Bit Rates
35(1)
Carrierless Amplitude Modulation (CAP)
36(3)
Analysis of CAP Performance
38(1)
The ATM Forum CAP Specification
39(1)
Discrete Multi-tone (DMT) Modulation
40(3)
CAP/QAM versus DMT
43(2)
Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
45(1)
ADSL Architecture
46(1)
RADSL and VDSL
46(1)
ITU-T V Series Modems
47(1)
Crosstalk
47(3)
Summary
50(1)
CHAPTER 3 GR-303: Current RBB Architecture
51(46)
GR-303 Architecture
51(2)
IDLC Architecture
53(1)
Types of Services
54(1)
Remote Digital Terminal (RDT)
54(2)
Integrated Network Access
56(2)
The GR-303 Layered Model
58(1)
GR-303 Framing Conventions
58(3)
Call Processing Options
61(1)
GR-303 and the Signaling Bits
62(1)
LAPD in GR-303 Operations
63(12)
Example of LAPD Operations
65(1)
GR-303 Requirements for LAPD
66(2)
The Basic Rate Interface (BRI) Topologies
68(3)
The Service Access Point Identifiers (SAPI)
71(1)
Other LAPD Operations
71(1)
SAPI/TEI Addressing Conventions
72(3)
GR-303 Layer 3 Operation
75(3)
Assignment Initiations
75(2)
Timeslot Clearing
77(1)
Loop Start Circuits
78(10)
Establishment by Customer (Loop Start Circuits)
79(1)
Clearing (Loop Start Circuits)
80(1)
Ground Start Circuits
81(1)
Establishment by Customer (Ground Start Circuits)
81(3)
Call Clearing (Loop Reverse Battery Circuits)
84(1)
911 Calls (Loop Reverse Battery Circuits)
85(3)
Reverting Call Establishment (Multiparty Option)
88(1)
ISDN Basic Access Circuits
88(1)
GR-303 Messages
88(8)
Functions of the Messages
91(3)
Information Elements (Parameters) in the Message
94(2)
Summary
96(1)
CHAPTER 4 Fiber in the Loop and the Synchronous Optical Network (SONET)
97(27)
Active Network Interface Device (ANID)
97(2)
Coaxial Spectrum Allocation
99(1)
The ANID Interfaces and Layers
99(3)
Physical Layer to Coaxial and Twisted Pair Plant at NIU (1)
100(1)
Data Link Layer at the NIU (2)
100(1)
Physical Layer on the Customer Side NIU (3)
101(1)
Physical Layer on the Customer Side (SIU) (4)
102(1)
Data Link Layer at the SIU (5)
102(1)
Session Layer at the SIU (6)
102(1)
Physical Layer Interface between SIU and Customer Plant (7)
102(1)
Other FITL Services
102(1)
SONET in Residential Broadband
103(2)
Structural Diversity in the Access Network
105(1)
Line Protection and Path Protection
106(3)
Restoration Alternatives
109(1)
Summary of Options for Protecting the Distribution Network
109(1)
1+1 and 1:1 Linear Configurations
109(1)
1:N Linear Configuration
109(1)
Regenerator
109(1)
Two-or Four-Fiber Ring/Add-Drop Multiplexer
109(1)
SONET Payloads
110(2)
SONET Configuration
112(1)
SONET Signal Hierarchy
113(2)
SONET Transmission and Relationship to Asynchronous Payloads
114(1)
The Envelope (Frame)
115(2)
Pointer Operations
117(4)
VT/VC Groups
121(1)
Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM)
121(1)
Bandwidth Management
122(1)
Summary
123(1)
CHAPTER 5 ATM Networks in Two-Way Access Systems
124(25)
Features of ATM
124(10)
The ATM Cell
125(1)
Switching
126(1)
Examples of Protocol Placement in the B-ISDN Layers
127(2)
The ATM ADAPTATION Layer (AAL)
129(4)
Service Classes
133(1)
ATM Forum RBB
134(14)
ATM RBB Reference Architecture
134(5)
ATM Digital Terminal (ADT)
139(1)
ATM Interface Unit (AIU)
140(1)
ATM over HFC
141(1)
Physical Interface for the Home ATM Network
141(2)
ATM over ADSL
143(3)
ATM Connection-Oriented Options on Residential Broadband
146(1)
Relationship of the ATM Forum and IEEE 802.14 Specifications
147(1)
Summary
148(1)
CHAPTER 6 Internet and LAN Considerations
149(10)
Problems with the Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
150(1)
Problems with the Telephone Service Providers
151(1)
Some Solutions
151(4)
Modem Termination Options
153(2)
The 56 kbits Modem
155(1)
Using the Local Loop for LAN Access
156(2)
Summary
158(1)
CHAPTER 7 New Generation Protocols for RBB HFC
159(20)
The IEEE 802.14 Specification
159(1)
The Adaptive DigiTal Access Protocol (ADAPt+)
160(2)
ADAPt+ Functional Groups
160(2)
The PHY Layer
162(1)
Symbol Rates, Bit Rates, and Byte Rates for ADAPt+
163(1)
Bandwidth Capacity
163(2)
Upstream and Downstream Synchronization
165(2)
Upstream and Downstream Byte Rates
166(1)
Downstream and Upstream PDU Structure
167(1)
Downstream PDU Structure
167(1)
Framing
167(1)
Fast Control Field (FCF)
167(1)
ATR1 and ATR2 PDUs and SDus
168(7)
Forward Error Correction (FEC)
171(1)
Upstream PDU Structure
171(2)
Upstream PHY Layer Requirements
173(2)
The Contention Protocol
175(2)
Bandwidth Requests and Allocations
177(1)
Summary of the ADAPt+ Operations
177(1)
Summary
178(1)
CHAPTER 8 Fixed Wireless Access
179(16)
Topology of Fixed Wireless Access (FWA)
179(2)
Fixed Wireless versus Fixed Wire Access
181(1)
Wireless Local Loop (WLL) Options
182(1)
Local Multipoint Multichannel Distribution Service (LMDS) and Multipoint Multichannel Distribution Service (MMDS)
182(1)
CDMA and TDMA
183(3)
TDMA Concepts
183(1)
CDMA Concepts
184(1)
CDMA: Pros and Cons
185(1)
DECT: An Alternative for FWA
186(6)
DECT Architecture
186(5)
DECT's Future in RBB?
191(1)
Current Issues With Spectrum Allocation
192(2)
Cost-Sharing Formula
193(1)
Effect of the Spectrum Allocation Plan in RBB
193(1)
U.S. Market Forecast
194(1)
Summary
194(1)
Appendix A Signaling Basics
195(10)
Common Terms and Operations
195(2)
Access and Supervisory Signaling
197(1)
Signaling Arrangement (Loop start)
198(1)
Ground Start Signaling
199(1)
Wink Start Signaling
199(1)
Multifrequency Codes
200(1)
DTMF Pairs
201(1)
Example of Trunk-side Access Arrangement
202(2)
Operator Service Signaling (SO)
204(1)
Appendix B Media
205(13)
Importance of Communications Media
205(1)
Local Loops
206(1)
Twisted-Pair Cable
206(3)
Shielded and Unshielded Cable
207(1)
Electronics Industries Association (EIA) Cable Categories
208(1)
Coaxial Cable
209(1)
Optical Fiber
209(2)
Radio Frequency Bands
211(1)
A Microwave System
212(1)
Satellite Communications
213(2)
Geosynchronous Satellites
215(1)
Cellular Radio
215(1)
Upcoming Wireless Networks
216(2)
Appendix C V.34
218(10)
Features of V.34
218(1)
Symbol Rates and Carrier Frequencies
219(1)
The V.34 Use of V.24 Interchange Circuits
220(1)
V8 and V.34 Signals and Their Use
220(3)
V.36 Phases
223(5)
Phase 1: Network Interaction
223(1)
Phase 2
224(1)
Phase 3
224(3)
Phase 4
227(1)
Appendix D Channel Performance and Measurements
228(10)
Decibel Losses and Power Ratio
228(2)
Decibels and Signal-to-Noise Ratios
230(1)
dB Losses in Relation to Power Losses in Electrical Circuits
231(1)
The Carrier Interference Ratio (Co-Channel Interference)
231(2)
Decibel 1 Milliwatt
233(1)
Example
234(1)
Nyquist Model
234(2)
Noise and Shannon's Law
236(2)
Appendix E TR-57, TR-507, TR-08
238(4)
Aspects of TR-57
238(1)
Aspects of TR-507
239(1)
Aspects of TR-08
240(2)
Appendix F GR-303 Requirements for ADSL, HFC, ATM, and Wireless-loop Distribution
242(6)
GR-303-ILF Requirements
242(1)
ADSL/IDLC Functional Reference Architecture
242(1)
GR-303 ADSL/IDLC Requirements (Not all-inclusive)
243(1)
GR-303 HFC Requirements
244(1)
GR-303-Wireless-Loop Distribution System (WLDS) Requirements
244(2)
GR-303 Wireless-Loop Distribution System (WLDS)
246(1)
Summary
247(1)
Additional References and Acknowledgments 248(3)
Index 251

Preface

PREFACE: Preface

This book examines the emerging communications technology called Residential Broadband.


While the term "residential" is in the book's title, the focus is also on the business sector. The major topic of the book is on the "local loop," that is, the link (communications channel) between a residential or business dwelling and a service provider, such as the telephone company, the cable TV operator, or an Internet service provider.


The subject matter of the book revolves around three major topics:


(a) wiring or wireless schemes for the local loop, (b) coding and modulation techniques for the traffic, and (c) protocols to manage the bandwidth and control the access to/from the residential broadband system.


There are many issues pertaining to local loop access that are not yet resolved. However, the pieces are starting to come together, especially with the emergence of standards for coding/modulation, and protocols to manage the bandwidth. These issues, both resolved and unresolved, are examined in this book.


I hope the reader finds the information in this book useful. You can reach me at 102732.3535@compuserve.com.

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